Blackfoot

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Related to Blackfoot Confederacy: Piegan, Blackfoot Indians

Blackfoot,

Native North Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They occupied in the early 19th cent. a large range of territory around the Upper Missouri (above the Yellowstone) and North Saskatchewan rivers W to the Rockies. Their name derives from the fact that they dyed their moccasins black. There were three main tribes—the Siksika, or Blackfoot proper; the Piegan; and the Kainah, or Blood. Although they did not form a unified political entity, they were united in defending their lands and in warfare. The Atsina (related to the Arapaho) and the Athapascan-speaking Sarsi were allied with the Blackfoot group. The Blackfoot were unremittingly hostile toward neighboring tribes and usually toward white men; intrusions upon Blackfoot lands were efficiently repelled. Prior to the mid-18th cent. they had moved into the N Great Plains area, acquired horses from southern tribes, and developed a nomadic Plains culture, largely dependent on the buffalo. Their only cultivated crop was tobacco, grown for ceremonial purposes. With the early coming of the white man, the Blackfoot gained wealth from the sale of beaver pelts, but the killing off of the buffalo and the near exhaustion of fur stocks brought them to near starvation. Presently the Blackfoot are mainly ranchers and farmers living on reservations in Montana and Alberta. They continue to a small degree the rich ceremonialism that earlier marked their religion; important rituals include the sun dance and the vision quest. In 1990 there were 38,000 Blackfoot in the United States and over 11,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See J. C. Ewers, The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (1958, repr. 1967); H. A. Dempsey, Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfeet (1972); M. McFee, Modern Blackfeet (1972); B. Nettl, Blackfoot Musical Thought (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
Although the Piikani Nation, a member of the Blackfoot Confederacy, is not part of the legal proceedings, Weasel Head said the Piikani and the Blackfeet First Nation, in Montana, also a member of the confederacy, have given their support.
The occasion marked the 124th year since the signing of the treaty between the Blackfoot Confederacy, comprised of the Peigan, Blood and Siksika Nations in Canada and the Blackfeet in Montana, and the Canadian government.
In Treaty 7, explained Narcisse Blood, a former councillor from the Blood First Nation, the Blackfoot Confederacy agreed to the peaceful settling of the west in exchange for medical care, education and other rights.
Books written by Adolf Hungry Wolf, from the Blood tribe, also a member of the Blackfoot Confederacy, discuss craft work, traditional dress, and legends.
The desire for a gateway specific to the Blackfoot Confederacy is not new.
The Blackfoot Confederacy has been here for time immemorial," he said.
I believe, however, that he made an incorrect analysis of Fidler's movements in mid-March, 1793, when Fidler was returning to Buckingham House after a winter spent with people of the Blackfoot confederacy.
Although the Piikani Nation, a member of the Blackfoot Confederacy, is not part of the legal proceedings, Weasel Head said they have Piikani support and support from the Blackfeet First Nation, in Montana, also a member of the confederacy.
The return of the objects will have a large impact on the members of the Blackfoot Confederacy, according to Frank Weasel Head, one of the signatories of the agreement.
The return of 251 sacred objects from Calgary's Glenbow Museum to the Blackfoot Confederacy marks both an end and a beginning.
Members of the traditional Blackfoot Confederacy have issued a declaration that says they are rejecting Canada's and the United States' jurisdiction over their traditional territory and reverting to the state of affairs that existed before European contact.
Indian Fall: The Last Great Days of the Plains Cree and the Blackfoot Confederacy By D'Arcy Jenish 341 pages, $32 (hc) Viking/Penguin Canada