Bleaching Clays

Bleaching Clays

 

alkaline earths, less frequently alkali montmorillonite clays or siliceous rocks, used to decolorize various substances, mainly liquids, as well as to remove harmful and contaminating impurities. The use of bleaching clays is based on their capacity, either in the natural or activated state, to absorb pigments, slime, sediments, tars, and the like.

Bleaching clays consist mainly of clay minerals (montmorillonite, beidellite, and saponite) with admixtures of quartz, feldspar, biotite, pyroxene, and other mineral fragments. The predominant particle size is less than 0.01 mm. The clays are distinguished by a high content of water, two-thirds of which is evaporated at 110°C, and by highly pronounced sorption properties. Bleaching clays are found mainly in Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neocene deposits in areas of volcanic activity. They are formed as a result of the hydrochemical alteration of volcanic rocks, such as tuff and ash.

Bleaching clays are used mainly in the refining and cracking of petroleum. In this process they act simultaneously as catalysts that accelerate the breakup of heavy hydrocarbons into gasoline and as adsorbents that retain harmful impurities on their surface.

In addition to the clays, tripoli and opoka are used in the purification of petroleum products, vegetable oils, fats, vinegar, wines, and fruit juices; the sugar industry uses mainly diatomites. Unlike the clays, tripoli and opoka do not acquire improved adsorption properties after activation by acids.

The wide use of bleaching clays in the manufacture of cloth prior to the 1830’s gave rise to the term “fuller’s earth.” Varieties of bleaching clays usually bear local names: kil (Crimea), gumbrin and askanit (Soviet Georgia), giliabi (bentonite; Azerbaijan), and floridin (USA).

References in periodicals archive ?
Net sales and volume growth were driven by sales of our bleaching clays and animal health and nutrition products.
Seed crushers remove the green from the oil with bleaching clays, which produce an added expense and pose an environmental problem.
Cat's Pride(R) cat litter, Jonny Cat(R) cat litter, Agsorb(R) agricultural carriers, Pro's Choice(R) sports field products, Flo-Fre(R) processing aids, ConditionAde(R) pellet binder and Pure-Flo(R) bleaching clays are all trademarks of Oil-Dri Corporation of America.
Bleaching clays continue to face strong competition in Western Europe.
Sales of Pure-Flo(R) bleaching clays and the other fluids purification products were approximately equal to those of a year ago.
Sales of fluids purification products, Pure-Flo(R) bleaching clays and Ultra-Clear(R) clarification aids, were down 3% in the quarter.
Domestic usage rate of bleaching clays were down considerably due to the high quality of crude oils being refined.
Sales of Ultra-Clear(R) clarification aid and Pure-Flo(R) bleaching clays were up 30 percent for the year.
The end result is a high quality purification product that is less expensive to manufacture than traditional bleaching clays yet provides the efficacy refiners need to produce top quality edible oils.
Sales of AGSORB(R) carriers, PURE-FLO(R) bleaching clays and ULTRA- CLEAR(R) clarification aids were up substantially in the period.