blood test

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blood test,

examination of bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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 routinely or as an aid in diagnosing a suspected disease. Tests may be performed on whole blood or on the plasma portion only. Blood typing identifies the proteins at specific sites on red blood cells, a necessity in determining compatibility for blood transfusionblood transfusion,
transfer of blood from one person to another, or from one animal to another of the same species. Transfusions are performed to replace a substantial loss of blood and as supportive treatment in certain diseases and blood disorders.
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. Human Lymphocyte Antigens (HLA) is a form of white blood cell typing prerequisite for organ and bone marrow transplants. The Coulter Cell Counter is widely used in electronic counts of red blood cells for the diagnosis of anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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 and polycythemiapolycythemia
, condition characterized by an increase in the production of red blood cells, or erythrocytes, in the blood. Primary polycythemia, also called erythremia, or polycythemia vera, is a chronic, progressive disease, most common in middle-aged men.
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. White cell counts are vital in detecting infections or in confirming leukemialeukemia
, cancerous disorder of the blood-forming tissues (bone marrow, lymphatics, liver, spleen) characterized by excessive production of immature or mature leukocytes (white blood cells; see blood) and consequently a crowding-out of red blood cells and platelets.
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. Serum or plasma may be collected, cultured, and inoculated with bacteria or other substances for the purpose of detecting the body's reaction to infections, cancer, or HIV, the virus that causes AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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. Plasma may also be examined for evidence of functional disorders, e.g., for blood sugar in testing for diabetes mellitus. Blood tests for tumor markers, such as prostate-specific antigen, are effective in detecting cancer in high risk groups. Almost all blood tests are now performed by electronic equipment, and results are evaluated and printed out by computer.

blood test

[′bləd ‚test]
(pathology)
A serologic test for syphilis.
A blood count.
A test for detection of blood, usually one based on the peroxidase activity of blood, such as the benzidine test or guaiac test.
References in periodicals archive ?
When looking at the number of diseases that can be detected early through the proper utilization of blood testing, it becomes strikingly apparent that a significant number of heart attacks, strokes, bone fractures, end-stage kidney/liver failure and other degenerative diseases are preventable.
At yesterday's CGF briefing on anti-doping policy for the Games, acting medical adviser Brian Sando admitted there had been confusion about whether or not blood testing would take place.
Clarifying the situation Sand acknowledged that blood testing would be conducted for sports where taking EPO could be an advantage - triathlon, and some swimming, cycling and track and field events.
Clarifying the situation, Sand acknowledged that blood testing would be conducted for sports where taking EPO could be an advantage - triathlon, and some swimming, cycling and track and field events.
The Manchester 2002 antidoping handbook - given to athletes, coaches and officials - warns that athletes may be required to undergo blood testing as well as urine testing to detect the endurance-boosting drug EPO.
Now nurses are angry as hospital blood testing units struggle to cope with hundreds of extra people.
Urine sampling is less expensive than blood testing, but only if an agent or broker--rather than a paramedic--takes the sample, Biehl said.
Before the AIDS epidemic, blood testing and paramedical exams were thought to provide unnecessary information and cause needless expense, particularly for younger applicants.
The approval of the PROCLEIX WNV Assay extends Chiron's leadership in the field of blood safety," said Gene Walther, president, Chiron Blood Testing.
Once the study is completed, we will closely review the results to determine if the skin test may be an acceptable alternative to blood testing for some insurance applicants.
ImmunoCAP was the first allergy test to be accepted by the FDA as a truly quantitative test for pinpointing allergens and the National Institutes of Health now accept allergy blood testing for asthma patients.