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hunting,act of seeking, following, and killing wild animals for consumption or display. It differs from fishingfishing,
act of catching fish for consumption or display. Fishing—usually by hand, club, spear, net, and (at least as early as 23,000 years ago) by hook—was known to prehistoric people.
..... Click the link for more information. in that it involves only land animals. Hunting was a necessary activity of early humans. Through the Paleolithic period it was their chief means of obtaining food and clothing. In the Neolithic period, when agriculture developed, killing game was still important. Hunting was popular among the ancients and became a sport in medieval Europe, where it was reserved, as far as possible, for the privileged classes by game lawsgame laws,
restrictions on the hunting or capture of wild game, whether bird, beast, or fish. After the Norman Conquest (1066), England enacted stringent game laws, known as the Forest Laws, which made hunting the sole privilege of the king and his nobles.
..... Click the link for more information. . Falconryfalconry
, sport of hunting birds or small animals with falcons or other types of hawks; eagles are used in some parts of the world. It was known to the ancient Chinese, Persians, and Egyptians. Falconry probably spread from Asia to Eastern Europe and then to Western Europe.
..... Click the link for more information. and foxhunting became increasingly popular in England in the Middle Ages, and the use of hunting dogs—hounds, setters, pointers, spaniels, and the like—became widespread in this period. Hunting can be divided into three branches, each of which is defined by the type of instrument used by the hunter. Hunting with weapons (now primarily firearms, formerly bow and arrowbow and arrow,
weapon consisting of two parts; the bow is made of a strip of flexible material, such as wood, with a cord linking the two ends of the strip to form a tension from which is propelled the arrow; the arrow is a straight shaft with a sharp point on one end and
..... Click the link for more information. , boomerangboomerang
, special form of throwing stick, used mainly by the aborigines of Australia. Other forms of throwing sticks were used by the peoples of ancient Egypt, Ethiopia, and India and by the indigenous peoples of the SW United States.
..... Click the link for more information. , spear, or sling) is probably the most popular, especially in the United States. Trappingtrapping,
most broadly, the use of mechanical or deceptive devices to capture, kill, or injure animals. It may be applied to the practice of using birdlime to capture birds, lobster pots to trap lobsters, and seines to catch fish.
..... Click the link for more information. and snaring with deceptive implements is popular in northern areas. In coursing (with dogs) and falconry (with hawks) hunters enlist the aid of trained animals. Coursing is especially popular in Britain and Western Europe. Types of hunting are also distinguished by the size of the animal being sought. Big-game hunting is the most glamorous and often the most dangerous. It became a popular sport among Western colonialists in Africa and India during the 19th cent., and even today the big-game safari survives. Big-game animals include, or have included, the moose, caribou, bear, and elk of North America; the reindeer, elk, and wolf of Europe; the tiger, leopard, elephant, and wild goat of Asia; and the antelope, gazelle, zebra, leopard, lion, giraffe, rhinoceros, and elephant of Africa. Small-game hunting, known as "shooting" in Great Britain, focuses on birds such as the quail, partridge, grouse, pheasant, and goose, as well as on such animals as the hare, rabbit, woodchuck, raccoon, and squirrel. Extensive hunting, both commercial and recreational, has made many species of game animals extinct (the passenger pigeon) or nearly extinct (the American bison). Game laws and wildlife refugeswildlife refuge,
haven or sanctuary for animals; an area of land or of land and water set aside and maintained, usually by government or private organization, for the preservation and protection of one or more species of wildlife. Types of Refuges
..... Click the link for more information. in the United States have been designed to save game animals and birds from extinction. Many African nations have also instituted such measures, but illegal poaching for furs, skins, ivory, internal organs, and the like remains a problem both there and in other areas of the world.
(electrical machinery), any periodic deviation in operating performance from the established state.
The most typical form of hunting is variation in the rate of rotation of the shaft in synchronous electrical machines brought about by a sudden change in the load on the shaft or in the parameters in the external electrical network (the disconnection or connection of parts of the network, short circuits in the line, improper connection of a generator to the network during its synchronization). For example, when a rapid change in torque occurs on the shaft of a motor, the rotor alters its angular position, with a certain angular acceleration, in order to reestablish the disturbed equilibrium. When synchronism has been achieved, the rotor, with its extra accumulation of kinetic energy, continues to increase its angular velocity, so that synchronism is again disturbed. As a result of the hunting, the shaft of the electrical machine oscillates mechanically, leading possibly to a disruption of the normal operation of the equipment.
REFERENCEPetrov, G. N. Elektricheskie mashiny, parts 1–3. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956–68.
the taking of wild animals and birds; one of the most ancient human economic activities. Hunting has been known to almost all peoples. Initially, in the Lower Paleolithic, it was predominantly a collective endeavor. Even the prey was eaten collectively. Hunting was usually combined with food-gathering and fishing and, later, with land cultivation and cattle raising. As civilization advanced and hunting weapons were improved, a particular form of hunting developed, which, mainly in northern latitudes, gradually evolved into commercial hunting.
The earliest hunting weapons were stones, stone axes, clubs, darts, and spears. Later weapons included spikes, spears, daggers, knives, nets, unattended traps, and pitfalls. Of particular significance in the development of hunting was the invention during the Mesolithic of the bow, which remained the principal hunting weapon for most peoples until the appearance of firearms. The dog was first used in hunting during the Neolithic; later, the bait-deer, horses, and hunting birds were used. Weaponry, which determined hunting methods, changed quite slowly. Hunting cultures developed over time, as traditions were handed down from generation to generation. For example, in the Far North in the first millennium B.C., traditional methods were established for harpooning marine animals from boats, from the shore, or on the ice. Hunting with dogs or unattended traps was widespread in the tundra and the taiga. Hunting on horseback with hunting birds and sight hounds was characteristic of Asiatic nomads. In North and South America, after the importation of horses there by Europeans in the 15th century, mounted hunting of bison, guanacos, and other animals developed. Hunting with the lasso and missiles (bola, throwing spear [sulitsa]) was common in the steppe zones of America, Asia (Middle East, India), and Europe (Black Sea region). The blowgun was used in some regions of Indonesia and South America. Bow hunting and spear hunting predominated in tropical forest regions. Australians hunted with darts and the boomerang. With the appearance of firearms in the 12th century (first among the Arabs), the rifle gradually became the principal hunting weapon.
Most widely used in modern hunting are rifles (usually in combination with hunting dogs) and such unattended trapping devices as spring traps, wooden traps, nets, and box traps. Less frequently, such trapping animals as sight hounds, terriers, cheetahs, and hunting birds are used. Baits and lures (meat, fish, nuts, berries, aromatic substances) and imitations of the calls of animals and birds are used to attract the game to an area selected by the hunter or into set traps.
There are various methods of hunting. Rifle hunting, which makes use of hunting dogs, including laikas, scent hounds, sight hounds, setters, pointers, and terriers, is used in pursuit of the majority of furbearers, ungulates, and forest and aquatic birds. The hunters sometimes flush the game from hiding by frightening it with a shot. An animal’s tracks may be followed on the snow, or its burrows, feeding sites, and watering places may be observed. An animal may be enticed toward an artificial or a live bird (duck, goose). Some animals are called by imitation of a mating invitation. Burrow-dwelling animals may be flushed from their habitats by terriers (fox terriers, dachshunds), smoke, or water. A battue may be conducted to drive the game toward the hunters.
In Rus’, amateur rifle hunting (in contrast to commercial and hound hunting) was called jaeger hunting. (A jaeger was a hunter equipped with a rifle and accompanied by a pointing dog, a professional hunter, or a hunter specially trained to direct hunting. Today the term refers to a staff hunter in a forestry who is responsible for an appointed area.)
Trapping, the taking of game without firearms, is used to hunt furbearing animals and forest and steppe game. Trapping ungulates is prohibited. Spring traps and snares with or without food or scented bait are set near burrows, on paths, and near watering places.
In the past, hunting with hounds was popular in Rus’ and other European countries. Hunters on foot or horseback were accompanied by specially trained scent or sight hounds. The scent hounds drove the game into an open area, perhaps a field, where mounted hunters with packs of sight hounds awaited the game, overtook it, and captured it. Sometimes only sight hounds were used, usually with the mounted hunters themselves pursuing the animal and bringing it to bay.
The chase was the favorite sport of the landowning nobility and of monarchs. In Russia in the 16th and 17th centuries there even existed a court rank of chasseur. The chasseur managed everything that was concerned with the sovereign’s hunting. Numerous people participated in the chase: the chasseur, the huntsmen (managers of the hounds), the senior huntsman (subordinate to the chasseur), the hunters accompanied by sight hounds, whippers-in, and beaters. Today chases are very rare. At the end of the 19th century par force hunting, borrowed from France, was popular in Russia. Mounted hunters sought to capture an animal brought to bay by hounds. The hunters grabbed the animal from the dogs, not allowing it to be torn to pieces. Strong, sturdy horses, capable of rapidly following the hounds over rough ground, were trained specially for par force hunting. In France par force hunting was a palace diversion. The sport is pursued today in France and Great Britain.
Falconry, the use of falcons, eagles, and hawks to capture a frightened animal (fox, wolf, corsac), was used in Russia principally in open areas, for example, steppes. In the USSR, falconry is almost nonexistent.
Hunting may be for commercial, sport, or scientific purposes. Commercial hunting is the capturing of game for fur, meat, and other products used by the public and industry. Some of the products are exported. The principal animals sought are valuable furbearers and ungulates (except for temporarily or permanently protected species), as well as forest and aquatic game. Hunting for sport, which has as its principal goal the capture of game (part of which becomes commercial products), develops physical powers, courage, and special skills in amateur hunters and sportsmen. The sport is becoming a popular form of relaxation. Hunting tourism, both within a country and abroad, is being developed. Sportsmen primarily hunt forest, steppe, aquatic, and marsh game, as well as rabbits, foxes, wolves, and ungulates. Hunting for scientific purposes is conducted by research institutions for the purpose of studying game animals, wildlife diseases, and the hunting industry, as well as for compiling regional studies. (Museums and scientific collections are enriched by stuffed wild animals.) Harmful animals, such as hamsters, water rats, susliks, and wolves, may be hunted with any type of weapon and by any method, including poisons, biological control, and propagation of animals that exterminate pests. Such animals are hunted principally in places where they are destructive to agriculture.
In the USSR the development of hunting within the framework of the rational use of natural resources looks promising. Game resources are rich and varied. Extensive areas are inhabited by more than 100 species of furbearers, more than 20 species of wild ungulates (boar, saiga, elk, roe deer, mush deer, Japanese deer, reindeer, Caucasian and Daghestan turs, ibex, argali, bighorn sheep), and more than 150 species of game birds. (For information on the hunting of marine mammals see SEAL-HUNTING and WHALING.)
Fur is the principal commercial product of hunting. The USSR has consistently been among the world’s greatest fur producers. By-products of hunting are meat, fat, hides, feathers, down, the “furry” hides of wild birds (divers, grebes, cormorants, guillemots), musk (a fragrant substance excreted by special glands of the musk deer, beaver, muskrat, desman), and hair (badger, Siberian weasel). Furs, forest game, antlers in the velvet, the meat of ungulates, and live rare species are exported. Animals and birds for populating new areas, zoos, and zoological gardens are obtained by hunting.
The shooting and trapping of game in the USSR are regulated by laws, administrative orders, and other normative acts directed toward the rational use, preservation, and replenishment of stocks of useful wild animals (see). All Union republics except the RSFSR adhere to the same hunting code. The RSFSR, whose territory embraces several natural climatic zones (from polar to subtropical), has a special hunting code, Regulations on Hunting and Game Management of the RSFSR (1960), which was ratified by the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR.
The right to hunt with rifles in the USSR is granted to citizens at least 18 years of age who have hunting permits and are members of hunting societies. A hunting permit in the USSR, a standard form throughout the country, grants the right to hunt various species of game. It is issued by local hunting managerial bodies or by hunting societies. Hunting without a permit or with an expired permit is illegal (see ILLEGAL HUNTING and POACHING). Shooting and trapping of valuable species are permitted by license (special permits issued by the managerial bodies). There is a fee for licenses to hunt ungulates. Enforcement of hunting laws, regulation of seasons and methods, and coordination of the work of procurement organizations and unions of hunters’ societies are carried out by the Central Administrations for Conservation, Natural Preserves, and the Hunting Industry under the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR under the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, by the State Hunting Inspection, and by the Hunting Supervision Service.
Outside the USSR, commercial hunting, principally for furbearers, is widely pursued in China, the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway. Game is hunted for export in Finland, Hungary, and Poland. Sport hunting exists in most countries. In almost all countries, hunting is regulated by legislation and supervised by the government. In many countries, along with basic laws regulating hunting, there is extensive legislation directed toward wildlife protection. Hunters in socialist countries must be members of a hunters’ society, which leases state hunting lands and undertakes all necessary biotechnical measures. In capitalist countries, hunting, both commercial and sport, is usually conducted on the basis of paid licenses. Tourist sport hunting is organized by special firms for large fees. The fees are especially high in countries of Southeast Asia and Africa.
Current issues concerning the development of hunting involve the problems of rational use and conservation of wildlife resources. These problems are being studied within the country and internationally. (See also BIOTECHNY, , and .)
REFERENCESSputnik promyslovogo okhotnika.[Edited by P. A. Manteifel’ and B. A. Kuznetsov.] Moscow, 1954.
Spangenberg, B. P., and V. V. Riabov. Okhota i okhotnich’e khoziaistvo SSSR, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
Sputnik nachinaiushchego okhotnika. Moscow, 1965.
Posobie dlia okhotnika, 3rd ed. Edited by I. D. Kiris. Moscow, 1972.
Rusanov, la. S. Okhota i okhrana fauny. Moscow, 1973.
B. N. BOGDANOV and O. S. KOLBASOV
What does it mean when you dream about hunting?
Hunting for something indicates that one is seeking to fulfill inner desires, whether emotional or physical.