Isolation

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isolation

[‚ī·sə′lā·shən]
(chemistry)
Separation of a pure chemical substance from a compound or mixture; as in distillation, precipitation, or absorption.
(computer science)
The ability of a logic circuit having more than one input to ensure that each input signal is not affected by any of the others.
(evolution)
The restriction or limitation of gene flow between distinct populations due to barriers to interbreeding.
(medicine)
Separation of an individual with a communicable disease from other, healthy individuals.
(microbiology)
Separation of an individual or strain from a natural, mixed population.
(physiology)
Separation of a tissue, organ, system, or other part of the body for purposes of study.
(psychology)
Dissociation of a memory or thought from the emotions or feelings associated with it.

Isolation

Reduction of vibration or sound; usually involving resilient surfaces or mountings or discontinuous construction.

Isolation

 

in biology, the limitation or disruption of free interbreeding between individuals and of mixing (panmixia) of different forms of organisms; one of the elemental factors of evolution.

Using island fauna and flora as an example, C. Darwin demonstrated the role of isolation in the emergence, expansion, and accentuation of differences between closely related forms of living organisms. If part (most often a peripheral part) of an original population is isolated by geographic obstacles, that part may in time be transformed into an independent species. This geographic (allopatric) means of species formation is, in the opinion of many biologists, the only, or, in any case, the main path of speciation. On the macroevolutionary level, isolation is a function of the inability of different species to interbreed, that is, it has a predominantly reproductive character. On the microevolu-tionary level (that is, on the intraspecific level), there are two principal types of isolation: territorial-mechanical isolation, which includes all cases of the emergence of barriers between different parts of a population or between different populations (for example, water to terrestrial organisms and dry land to aquatic organisms, or mountains to lowland species and lowlands to mountain species), and biological isolation, which is divided into three subgroups: (1) ecological isolation, in which individuals of two or more biotypes rarely or never meet during the reproductive period; (2) morphophysiological isolation, in which copulation is difficult or impossible for morphological or ethological (behavioral) reasons; and (3) strictly genetic isolation, caused by the defectiveness (decreased vitality or fertility or complete sterility) of the hybrids obtained from certain inter-breedings. All forms of isolation may exert various pressures on populations, since any form of isolation may be expressed quantitatively in varying degree. Territorial-mechanical isolation (or geographic, for large territories) leads to allopatric form development; given a sufficiently prolonged period of effect, it leads to the appearance of certain forms of biological isolation. Instances of the emergence of biological isolation may lead to sympatric development.

REFERENCES

Darwin, C. Proiskhozhdenie vidov putem estestvennogo otbora. So-chineniia, vol. 3. Moscow-Leningrad, 1939.
Geptner, V.G. Obshchaia zoogeografiia. Moscow, 1936.
Ehrlich, P., and R. Holm. Protsess eveoliutsii. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Shmal’gauzen, I.I. Faktory evoliutsii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.
Timofeev-Resovskii, N. V., N.N. Vorontsov, and A.V. Iablokov. Kratkii ocherk teorii evoliutsii. Moscow, 1969.
Shmal’gauzen, I.I. Problemy darvinizma, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1969.

V. G. GEPTNER and N. N. TIMOFEEV-RESOVSKII


Isolation

 

the intonational and semantic separation of part of a sentence (together with dependent words), making it syntactically independent.

Intonational separation is accomplished by raising the voice before the part to be isolated and by using pauses and phrase stress. Word order is frequently changed. The semantic and stylistic function of isolation consists in the more precise expression of an idea or the further description of a person or object.

Isolation often lends expressive color to a sentence. In writing, the isolated parts of a sentence are usually set off by commas or, more rarely, by dashes. For example, “Right opposite the military post, on the far shore, it was deserted” (L. N. Tolstoy).

Isolation

Alcatraz Island
“The Rock”; former federal prison in San Francisco Bay. [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]
Alison’s House
reclusive woman guards secrets and poems of her dead sister. [Am. Drama: Glaspel Alison’s House in Sobel, 18]
Aschenbach, Gustave von
spiritual and emotional solitude combine in writer’s deterioration. [Ger. Lit.: Death in Venice]
Count of Monte Cristo
Edmond Dantès imprisoned in the dungeons of Château D’If for 14 years. [Fr. Lit.: The Count of Monte Cristo, Magill I, 158–160]
Crusoe, Robinson
man marooned on a desert island for 24 years. [Brit. Lit.: Robinson Crusoe, Magill I, 839–841]
Dickinson, Emily
(1830–1886) secluded within the walls of her father’s house. [Am. Lit.: Hart, 224]
Hermit Kingdom Korea,
when it alienated itself from all but China (c. 1637—c. 1876). [Korean Hist.: NCE, 1233]
Iron Curtain
political and ideological barrier of secrecy concealing Eastern bloc. [Eur. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 490]
Magic Mountain, The
suspended in time, which exists in flat world below. [Ger. Lit.: The Magic Mountain, Magill I, 545–547]
Man Without a Country, The
story of man exiled from homeland. [Am. Lit.: The Man Without a Country, Magill I, 553–557]
Olivia
“abjured the company and sight of men.” [Br. Lit.: Twelfth Night]
prisoner of Chillon
cast into a lightless dungeon and chained there for countless years. [Br. Lit.: Byron The Prisoner of Chillon in Benét, 817]
Selkirk, Alexander
(1676–1721) marooned on Pacific island; thought to be prototype of Robinson Crusoe. [Scot. Hist.: EB, IX: 45]
Sleepy Hollow
out-of-the-way, old-world village on Hudson. [Am. Lit.: “Legend of Sleepy Hollow” in Benét, 575]
Stylites
medieval ascetics; resided atop pillars. [Christian Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1045]
Stylites, St. Simeon
lived 36 years on platform atop pillar. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 309]