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a city and administrative center in Bolkhov Raion of Orlov Oblast, in the RSFSR. It is located on the Nugr’ River (a tributary of the Oka), 50 km northwest of the Mtsensk railroad station and 56 km from the city of Orel. Population, 12,800 (1969). It has machine-repair, wood-processing, food-processing, hemp-processing, and other industries. There is a pedagogical school and a museum of local lore. The city has been known since the 13th century, and in the 16th century it served as one of the fortified points protecting Moscow from the Tartars coming from the south.