Bolognese School


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Bolognese School

 

one of the schools of Italian painting. Bolognese painting, which was outstanding for its sharp character and expression of images, occupied a prominent place in Italian art as early as the 14th century. However, the term “Bolognese school” is associated primarily with one of the trends in Italian painting during the period of the formation and flowering of the baroque style. The Bolognese school came into being after the Carracci brothers founded the Academy of Those Who Have Entered Upon the Correct Path in Bologna circa 1585; there for the first time the doctrines of European academicism and the forms of activity for future art academies were established. The Bolognese school considered the study of nature a preparatory stage on the way to the creation of ideal images. This same goal was served by a strict system of rules for mastery that was artificially abstracted from the experience of the High Renaissance masters.

The artists of the Bolognese school from the late 16th through 17th centuries (the Carraccis, G. Reni, Domenichino, and Guercino) mainly executed compositions based on religious and mythological themes that were marked by idealization and frequently by magnificent ornamentation. The Bolognese school played a dual role in the history of art. It facilitated the systematization of art education, and its masters developed the types of altar paintings, monumental decorative frescoes, and “heroic” landscapes which were characteristic of the baroque style. In the early period the Bolognese masters sometimes showed sincere feelings and original concepts (in portrait and genre painting), but later the principles of the Bolognese school, which spread throughout Italy (and later even beyond its borders) and became dogma, engendered only cold abstraction and lifelessness in art.

REFERENCE

Vipper, B. R. Problema realizma v ital’ianskoi zhivopisi XVII-XVIII vekov. Moscow, 1966. Chapter 1.
References in periodicals archive ?
He taught not only his daughter but, later, Lodovico the eldest of the Carracci, the initiator of the Bolognese School which defied Prospero's Mannerist past and dominated Italian painting in the early seventeenth century.
Schutze and Willette each make a strong case for Stanzione's crucial links with Annibale Carracci and the Bolognese school, but they do so in very different terms.
Although not of the Bolognese School but a late Florentine painter, Carlo Dolci follows its tradition in his passionate Magdalen, all plump orifices and blue-tinged olive fervour in a face of body-flesh.
To help us do that for Riccioli, we have essays by Denise Arico on Bolognese schools and Riccioli, and by Alessandra Fiocca and Veronica Gavagna on aspects of the science of the Ferrara region: both were areas where Riccioli lived and worked.