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bolshevik(from the Russian bol' shinstovo, majority) a member of the Leninist majority of the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1903, the forerunner of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Thus, by extension, the term bolshevism has also come to refer to any revolutionary communist party which adopts a similar ‘vanguard conception’ of the role of the party in leading the working class (see also POLITICAL PARTY).
the southernmost and second largest island of the Severnaia Zemlia archipelago. Its area is 11,312 sq km. The northern shore is sharply indented. The land, which reaches 935 m in elevation, is mainly formed of proterozoic metamorphic schists and sandstones, as well as granitoids. Low plateau-like elevations predominate, becoming hilly plains on the southern shore. About 30 percent of the territory is covered by glaciers. On the shore plain there is moss and lichen vegetation of the arctic desert.
an urban-type settlement in Gomel’ Raion, Gomel’ Oblast, Byelorussian SSR, 8 km from the Kostiukovka railroad station (on theGomel’-Zhlobin line). Population, 2,500 (1968). The Bol’shevik Peat-processing Enterprise is located there.
an urban-type settlement in Susuman Raion, Magadan Oblast, RSFSR, on the Magadan-Khandyga highway. Population, 1,300 (1968). Gold mining.