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one of the first types of artillery weapons used during the siege and defense of fortresses in the 14th to the 16th century. Small-caliber bombards did not serve their purposes, and artillery manufacturers began to produce weapons of very large calibers, up to 1,000 mm, and weights of 16–19 tons. Bombard barrels were made from bands of welded iron fastened tightly with iron rings, or they were cast from bronze and embedded in wooden frames or blocks; in the back, poles were driven in for support or a small stone wall was set up. Once established, the angle of elevation was not changed. Bombards were loaded through the muzzle and shot stone cannonballs. Their range was 400–700 m.