Bordetella


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Related to Bordetella: Bordetella pertussis, Kennel cough

Bordetella

A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are coccobacilli and obligate aerobes, and fail to ferment carbohydrates. These bacteria are respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica share greater than 90% of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences and would not warrant separate species designations except that the distinctions are useful for clinical purposes. Bordetella pertussis is an obligate human pathogen and is the causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis). Bordetella parapertussis causes a milder form of disease in humans and also causes respiratory infections in sheep. Bordetella bronchiseptica has the broadest host range, causing disease in many mammalian species, but kennel cough in dogs and atrophic rhinitis, in which infected piglets develop deformed nasal passages, have the biggest economic impact. Bordetella avium is more distantly related to the other species. A pathogen of birds, it is of major economic importance to the poultry industry.

Infection by all four species is characterized by bacterial adherence to the ciliated cells that line the windpipe (trachea), B. pertussis releases massive amounts of peptidoglycan, causing an exaggerated immune response that is ultimately deleterious, resulting in self-induced death of the ciliated cells. Bordetella also produces protein toxins. The best-characterized is pertussis toxin, made only by B. pertussis. This toxin interferes with the mechanisms used by host cells to communicate with one another.

Bordetella pertussis is spread by coughing and has no environmental reservoir other than infected humans. Culturing the organism is difficult. Erythromycin is the antibiotic used most frequently to treat whooping cough. Unfortunately, antibiotic treatment improves the patient's condition only if given early, when the disease is most difficult to diagnose, and does not help after whooping has begun. This is consistent with the concept that the early symptoms of the disease result from bacterial damage to the respiratory tract and the later symptoms are due to toxins released by the bacteria. Antibiotics can eradicate the microorganisms but cannot reverse the effects of toxins, which can cause damage far from the site of bacterial growth.

Vaccines have been developed for whooping cough and kennel cough. Multicomponent pertussis vaccines consisting of inactivated pertussis toxin and various combinations of filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae are now replacing the older whole-cell vaccines consisting of killed bacteria, which were suspected but not proven to cause rare but serious side effects. Vaccination programs have greatly reduced the incidence of whooping cough in affluent nations, but worldwide nearly half a million deaths occur each year, most of which are vaccine-preventable. See Antibiotic, Medical bacteriology

Bordetella

[‚bȯr·də′tel·ə]
(microbiology)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria of uncertain affiliation; minute coccobacilli, parasitic and pathogenic in the respiratory tract of mammals.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Bordetella bacterium component can be treated with antibiotics.
9% could be an underestimate of the exact contribution of Bordetella pertussis infection to the cohort.
That said, the Bordetella vaccine is often required by facilities prior to boarding and daycare.
Sanden GN development and evaluation of dual-target real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect Bordetella spp.
Bordetella Pertussis Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2014
Bordetella pertussis is an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium that causes symptoms by producing multiple antigenic and biologically active components, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and agglutinogens.
Caption: A photomicrograph of Bordetella (Haemophilus) pertussis bacteria uses Gram stain technique.
On August 30, 2013, the Florida Department of Health in Columbia County was notified of a Bordetella pertussis laboratory-positive unimmunized child attending a local charter school (316 students from pre-K through 8 th grade) in a large religious community averse to health care and vaccinations.
Whooping cough, which is also known as pertussis, is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by a bacterium known as Bordetella pertussis.
TT) Celulas enteras muertas de Bordetella pertussis (Antig.
In the current study, the genetic profiles of clinical isolates and vaccine strains of Bordetella pertussis (B.
Infants too young to receive the Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccine are at risk for infection with the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, resulting in a case of pertussis.