Bordetella


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Related to Bordetella: Bordetella pertussis, Kennel cough

Bordetella

A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are coccobacilli and obligate aerobes, and fail to ferment carbohydrates. These bacteria are respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica share greater than 90% of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences and would not warrant separate species designations except that the distinctions are useful for clinical purposes. Bordetella pertussis is an obligate human pathogen and is the causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis). Bordetella parapertussis causes a milder form of disease in humans and also causes respiratory infections in sheep. Bordetella bronchiseptica has the broadest host range, causing disease in many mammalian species, but kennel cough in dogs and atrophic rhinitis, in which infected piglets develop deformed nasal passages, have the biggest economic impact. Bordetella avium is more distantly related to the other species. A pathogen of birds, it is of major economic importance to the poultry industry.

Infection by all four species is characterized by bacterial adherence to the ciliated cells that line the windpipe (trachea), B. pertussis releases massive amounts of peptidoglycan, causing an exaggerated immune response that is ultimately deleterious, resulting in self-induced death of the ciliated cells. Bordetella also produces protein toxins. The best-characterized is pertussis toxin, made only by B. pertussis. This toxin interferes with the mechanisms used by host cells to communicate with one another.

Bordetella pertussis is spread by coughing and has no environmental reservoir other than infected humans. Culturing the organism is difficult. Erythromycin is the antibiotic used most frequently to treat whooping cough. Unfortunately, antibiotic treatment improves the patient's condition only if given early, when the disease is most difficult to diagnose, and does not help after whooping has begun. This is consistent with the concept that the early symptoms of the disease result from bacterial damage to the respiratory tract and the later symptoms are due to toxins released by the bacteria. Antibiotics can eradicate the microorganisms but cannot reverse the effects of toxins, which can cause damage far from the site of bacterial growth.

Vaccines have been developed for whooping cough and kennel cough. Multicomponent pertussis vaccines consisting of inactivated pertussis toxin and various combinations of filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae are now replacing the older whole-cell vaccines consisting of killed bacteria, which were suspected but not proven to cause rare but serious side effects. Vaccination programs have greatly reduced the incidence of whooping cough in affluent nations, but worldwide nearly half a million deaths occur each year, most of which are vaccine-preventable. See Antibiotic, Medical bacteriology

Bordetella

[‚bȯr·də′tel·ə]
(microbiology)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria of uncertain affiliation; minute coccobacilli, parasitic and pathogenic in the respiratory tract of mammals.
References in periodicals archive ?
As a secondary objective, the system collects data to describe the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of other Bordetella species, including B.
The Bordetella pertussis/parapertussis real-time PCR kit expands the syndrome-specific menu offering through our partner assays with a test that is timely and highly relevant in meeting the market need.
The first whole cell Bordetella vaccine was developed in the 1930s and was in widespread used by the mild 1940 when Pertussis vaccine combined with Diphtheria Toxoid and Tetanus Toxoid to make the combination DTP vaccine.
Beginning January 1, 2008, the Vermont Department of Health Laboratory (VDHL) will be offering Bordetella pertussis PCR testing.
In addition to the canine influenza virus A, this PCR test is used to detect other infectious diseases in dogs, including Bordetella bronchiseptica, distemper, adenovirus type 2, herpesvirus, and parainfluenza virus, all of which are causes of "kennel cough" in dogs.
Blood samples were also taken to test for the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough.
They also confirm previous research in several countries which has shown that Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) infection is an endemic disease among adolescents and adults and that the vaccine does not offer long-term protection.
Pertussis, also called whooping cough, is caused by Bordetella pertussis.
KENNEL cough is an infection caused by a number of different agents, but most commonly caused by a bacteria - Bordetella bronchiseptica.
A bordetella pertussis could ruin a wedding day, but would you blame it or your mother-in-law's three-mile wide hat?
A - Kennel cough is an infection that is caused by a number of different agents, but it is most commonly caused by a bacteria ( Bordetella bronchiseptica.
Some researchers have been concerned that changes in the genetics of Bordetella pertussis, the most common pertussis-causing microbe, could underlie the disease's resurgence.