The parameter b is equal to zero for the standard vector--axial vector type of weak interactions, and the parameter D is related to time-odd correlations of spin and momenta, therefore in the first Born approximation
, it is defined by a time reversal violating process.
A detailed description of the apparatus and techniques required for these experiments is provided, and theoretical approaches to data analysis are described, including approximate methods such as the Master formula, the Born approximation
, Parratt's algorithm and the Distorted Wave Approximation.
Using this in conjunction with the Born approximation
, t = v, the optical potential then becomes
So researchers made use of the Born approximation, a mathematical rule that can be used when the object of interest is small and transparent.
Using this information, the UIUC team applied the Born approximation to their findings and calculated what the appropriate scattering signature for healthy cells should be.
The numerical data in Tables 1 and 2 can be extended to higher incident energies by using the well known Bethe formula  for the plane-wave Born approximation for fast (but nonrelativistic) incident electrons.
The measurements were corrected for cascading and polarization of the emitted fluorescence using Born approximation results and normalized at high energies to the Born approximation value.
Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented.
The plane wave Born approximation with the Ockhur (14) approximation for exchange was used.