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Bornu(bôr`no͞o), former Muslim state, mostly in NE Nigeria, extending S and W of Lake Chad. It began its existence as a separate state in the late 14th cent. From the 14th to the 18th cent. Bornu exported slaves, eunuchs, fabrics dyed with saffron, and other goods to N Africa. Bornu reached its peak under the mai (ruler) Idris Alawma (ruled 1570–1610), when it was the leading state in the central Sudan region. Bornu declined from the 17th cent. In the early 19th cent. it was severely threatened by the FulaniFulani
, people of W Africa, numbering approximately 14 million. They are of mixed sub-Saharan African and Berber origin. First recorded as living in the Senegambia region, they are now scattered throughout the area of the Sudan from Senegal to Cameroon.
..... Click the link for more information. but maintained its independence when Muhammad al-Kanemi (ruled 1814–35), who established a new dynasty, revived the state. However, Bornu began to decline again after c.1850 because of weak rulers, and was conquered (1893–96) by the forces of Rabih al-Zubayr, a Sudanese slave trader. In 1898, Bornu was divided among Great Britain, France, and Germany. In 1922 the German portion became part of the British Cameroons mandate of the League of Nations.
a natural region whose major part is located in the North-Eastern State, in northern Nigeria. Its surface is made up of aggradation plains that range in elevation from 280 m in the east (on the shores of Lake Chad) to 500 m in the south and are composed of ancient sand and clay lacustrine deposits. In the south and southeast there are island-like hills and ridges composed of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The climate is subequatorial and hot, with summer rains (precipitation is about 500 mm annually). In the rainy periods water floods the plains extensively and stagnates in the clay sinkholes. The vegetation is mainly grassy savanna with solitary trees. The major occupations of the inhabitants are nomadic and seminomadic livestock raising and the cultivation of millet, sorghum, beans, and rice.
L. A. MIKHAILOVA