Bornu


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Bornu

(bôr`no͞o), former Muslim state, mostly in NE Nigeria, extending S and W of Lake Chad. It began its existence as a separate state in the late 14th cent. From the 14th to the 18th cent. Bornu exported slaves, eunuchs, fabrics dyed with saffron, and other goods to N Africa. Bornu reached its peak under the mai (ruler) Idris Alawma (ruled 1570–1610), when it was the leading state in the central Sudan region. Bornu declined from the 17th cent. In the early 19th cent. it was severely threatened by the FulaniFulani
, people of W Africa, numbering approximately 14 million. They are of mixed sub-Saharan African and Berber origin. First recorded as living in the Senegambia region, they are now scattered throughout the area of the Sudan from Senegal to Cameroon.
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 but maintained its independence when Muhammad al-Kanemi (ruled 1814–35), who established a new dynasty, revived the state. However, Bornu began to decline again after c.1850 because of weak rulers, and was conquered (1893–96) by the forces of Rabih al-Zubayr, a Sudanese slave trader. In 1898, Bornu was divided among Great Britain, France, and Germany. In 1922 the German portion became part of the British Cameroons mandate of the League of Nations.

Bornu

 

a natural region whose major part is located in the North-Eastern State, in northern Nigeria. Its surface is made up of aggradation plains that range in elevation from 280 m in the east (on the shores of Lake Chad) to 500 m in the south and are composed of ancient sand and clay lacustrine deposits. In the south and southeast there are island-like hills and ridges composed of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The climate is subequatorial and hot, with summer rains (precipitation is about 500 mm annually). In the rainy periods water floods the plains extensively and stagnates in the clay sinkholes. The vegetation is mainly grassy savanna with solitary trees. The major occupations of the inhabitants are nomadic and seminomadic livestock raising and the cultivation of millet, sorghum, beans, and rice.

L. A. MIKHAILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, for all the wells investigated, the cross-plots of heat generation versus RHOB x GR show that the gradient for the Bornu Basin is generally the same--0.
O termo preto era quase sempre indicativo de africano de condicao escrava ou forra, como vimos no caso de Adriao Bornu, que era africano e foi qualificado como preto.
these Arabs have harmed all our land, the land of Bornu, continually up to the present, and have captured our free subjects and relatives, who are Muslims, and are selling them to the slave-dealers in Egypt and Syria and elsewhere, and some they kept for themselves.
The so-called "wasili," for instance, were an important and powerful group of traders from Tripoli who settled in Bornu (first in Kukawa, later Maiduguri) in the nineteenth century.
It is likely that sociopolitical relations in this area at AD 800 were considerably different than those existing at AD 1300, a time when we have historical evidence for the increasing interest of state-level societies -- in Kanem, Bornu and probably Baghirmi -- in the southern Lake Chad Basin.
Martinez took three sets to dispatch Yvette Basting of Holland, 7-5, 3-6, 6-4 while Gubacsi cruised home 6-3, 6-2, against Carine Bornu of France.
The empires of Bornu and Oyo, and the kingdom of Benin are a few of them.
As if these were not enough, the Arabic and Atlantic slave trades gave the final blows to the last remaining kingdoms of the Asante, Dahomey, Bornu, Kano, and Benin, among others.
About the year 1396, Uthman Biri Ibn Idris, King of Bornu (the Bornu Empire (1396-1893) was a medieval African state of Nigeria from 1396 to 1893.
Long before the arrival of French influence and control in the area, Niger was an important economic crossroads, and the empires of Songhai, Mali, Gao, Kanem, and Bornu, as well as a number of Hausa states, claimed control over portions of the area.
During the protest, in which people from the Hausa neighborhood organized a peaceful march led by a group of tribal leaders and officials in a popular demonstration to hand a memorandum of protest to the Head Quarter of the Gadhariff state to express their disapproval of President al-Bashir's reported offensive statement that the Sudanese tribes of Hausa, Fulani, Bornu and Tama groups as non-Sudanese and they not have the right to participate in the upcoming elections in Sudan.