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see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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; Bose-Einstein statisticsBose-Einstein statistics,
class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an
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bose particle, a particle with zero or integral spin. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics (hence the designation of the particle). Bosons include light quanta, or photons (spin 1); quanta of the gravitational field (if such exist), or gravi-tons (spin 2); unstable elementary particles such as mesons and boson resonances; and also compound particles made up of an even number of fermions (particles of half-integral spin)—for example, atomic nuclei with an even total number of protons and neutrons (a deuteron, a 4He nucleus or alpha particle, and so on); and gas molecules. Bosons are also quasi-particles of integral (or zero) spin—for example, pho-nons in the solid state and in liquid 4He and excitons in semiconductors and dielectrics.



(statistical mechanics)
A particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics; includes photons, pi mesons, and all nuclei having an even number of particles and all particles with integer spin.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, algebra (3) allows also bosonic generators [S.
Some areas explored include loop space path integral representations for Euclidean quantum field path integrals, Abelian Wilson loops, fermions on the lattice by means of Mandelstam-Wilson phase factors, string wave equations in Polyakov's path integral framework, a covariant path integral for Nambu-Goto string theory, and domains of bosonic functional integrals.
A lot of recent attention was therefore devoted to the quantitative analysis of these experiments: we have shown for instance that interference patterns for bosonic gases in an optical lattice can be in one-to-one agreement with quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
The 11 papers here consider such topics as photonic properties of non-crystalline solids, ultrasonic wave transport in strongly scattering media, Anderson localization of ultrasound in three dimensions, time reversal focusing and the diffraction limit, and strongly correlated ultracold bosonic and fermionic quantum gases in optical lattices.
87]Rb bosonic ions confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled [4].
OTCBB: GOHG) is pleased to announce its acquisition of Bosonic Industrial Corp.
Specifically, we seek to test the ideas in a guided matter-wave interferometer based on ultracold bosonic atoms.
54) with usual commutation relations for the bosonic operators ap; [a.
Another important group related to the unique tadpole-free bosonic string theory is the SO([2.
Yang's Noncommutative algebra should be extended to superspaces, meaning nonanti-commuting Grassmanian coordinates and noncommuting bosonic coordinates.
Using these methods the bosonic p-brane propagator, in the quenched mini superspace approximation, was constructed in [18, 19]; the logarithmic corrections to the black hole entropy based on the geometry of Clifford space (in short C-space) were obtained in [21]; the modified nonlinear de Broglie dispersion relations, the corresponding minimal-length stringy [11] and p-brane uncertainty relations also admitted a C-space interpretation [10], [19].