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see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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; Bose-Einstein statisticsBose-Einstein statistics,
class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an
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bose particle, a particle with zero or integral spin. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics (hence the designation of the particle). Bosons include light quanta, or photons (spin 1); quanta of the gravitational field (if such exist), or gravi-tons (spin 2); unstable elementary particles such as mesons and boson resonances; and also compound particles made up of an even number of fermions (particles of half-integral spin)—for example, atomic nuclei with an even total number of protons and neutrons (a deuteron, a 4He nucleus or alpha particle, and so on); and gas molecules. Bosons are also quasi-particles of integral (or zero) spin—for example, pho-nons in the solid state and in liquid 4He and excitons in semiconductors and dielectrics.



(statistical mechanics)
A particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics; includes photons, pi mesons, and all nuclei having an even number of particles and all particles with integer spin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Behind a cloud of virtual particles was Heterotic Superstring Theory, a hybrid of superstring and bosonic string.
The bosonic laser emits not only terahertz radiation but also visible blue light in the same direction, allowing it be used as a surgical instrument.
Because of nonlinear interactions with the non-polar medium, bosonic electron pairs can congregate spatially at certain points of these "one-dimensional" fibers (breaking of the E (1) symmetry), and be excited into longitudinal oscillations along the fiber.
However, algebra (3) allows also bosonic generators [S.
US Global Holdings (OTCBB:GOHG) said it had bought Bosonic Industrial Corp, a newly created developer of green technologies, for an undisclosed sum.
Some areas explored include loop space path integral representations for Euclidean quantum field path integrals, Abelian Wilson loops, fermions on the lattice by means of Mandelstam-Wilson phase factors, string wave equations in Polyakov's path integral framework, a covariant path integral for Nambu-Goto string theory, and domains of bosonic functional integrals.
OTCBB: GOHG) is pleased to announce the formation of Bosonic Industrial Corporation's Scientific Advisory Board.
It will explore supersolidity expected for ultracold bosonic systems with soft-core interactions and realize quantum magnets, that are designable almost at will and feature unprecedented coupling strengths.
Their fermionic part is arranged into corresponding structures observable in the form of a fireball, while their bosonic parts converge in the centre of the ball going to the additional dimension (Y area) [2].
Parallel to this development, there also has been significant success in efforts to numerically build simpler effective models integrating out higher energy fluctuations and greater interest in bosonic systems on one and two-dimensional lattices.
OTCBB: GOHG) is pleased to announce the filing of Bosonic Industrial Corporation's first patent.
We aim to explore many-body physics associated with bosonic dipolar systems, in particular the spontaneous structuring of the ground state and the possible supersolid state.