Marine invertebrates, such as bottom-dwelling
starfish and sea urchins, are particularly proficient at absorbing a wide range of ingested radioisotopes, he said, but fortunately, they lose that incorporated radioactivity over time, via excretion.
Gulf sturgeon are anadromous fish, spending winter months in the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico where they grow and increase their condition by feeding on tiny, bottom-dwelling
Threats to the animal's vitality include commercial fishing in Baja and the Gulf of California, and being collected accidentally as bycatch by shrimp and other fishermen, due to its penchant for bottom-dwelling
They also found that some BMAA accumulates in bottom-dwelling
fish as well as in mussels and oysters cultivated on the coast of Sweden.
The target species are usually shrimp or bottom-dwelling
flat-fish such as plaice and sole, but its indiscriminate nature means that hundreds of other species, including corals and seafans, are killed in the process.
The risks will persist as toxic substances enter food webs--for instance, when bottom-dwelling
organisms process sediment, end then are eaten by foraging predators--or are re-released from sediments via disturbances, including storms.
4) They found that people living near the most biologically impoverished streams--as reflected by the numbers and proportions of bottom-dwelling
macroinvertebrates living there--had the highest cancer rates, even after adjusting for known risk factors such as smoking, income level, and urbanization.
The China-based group, established in 1958, has over 70,000-hectare of aquacultural farm and engages in hatching, farming, processing and trading of bottom-dwelling
Comprising nearly 900 species, the bottom-dwelling
fishes called blennies are important members of most coastal marine ecosystems worldwide.
Lobsters are scavengers but also eat live fish, small molluscs and other bottom-dwelling
invertebrates as well as seaweed.
The dead zone, more properly known as the Gulf's hypoxic zone, is an area in which the levels of oxygen in the water are too low to support most aquatic life in bottom and near bottom water, causing fish to leave the area and killing bottom-dwelling
organisms that cannot leave.
Professor Richard Alley, a US glaciologist at Pennsylvania State University, said: "We know from looking at much older climate records that a large and rapid increase in CO2 in the past caused large extinction in bottom-dwelling
ocean creatures, and dissolved a lot of shells as the ocean became acidic.