Ischemia

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ischemia

[i′skē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
Localized tissue anemia as a result of obstruction of the blood supply or to vasoconstriction.

Ischemia

 

a local deficiency of blood; insufficient blood in an organ or tissue because of the narrowing or complete occlusion of the lumen of an afferent artery.

Transitory ischemia (like hyperemia) may result from physiological regulation of the blood supply, such as in reflex spasm of an artery caused by a mental factor (fright); the influence of pain, cold, chemical substances (epinephrine, ergotin), and biological stimuli (bacteria, toxins); the obstruction of an artery by a thrombus or embolus; constriction of the lumen of a blood vessel in connection with an atherosclerotic or inflammatory process in the wall; or compression of an artery by a tumor, scar, or foreign body. The aftereffects of ischemia depend on the degree of disruption of the blood flow, the rate of development and duration of the ischemia, the sensitivity of the tissue to oxygen deficiency, and the general condition of the body. Ischemia may end in complete restoration of the structure and function of the affected organ or tissue, but it also may lead to necrosis (infarct). The central nervous system and heart muscle are particularly sensitive to ischemia.

N. R. PALEEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Bowel ischemia can be divided into occlusive and nonocclusive causes.
Acute small bowel ischemia can result from occlusive (arterial or venous) causes as well as nonocclusive causes, such as hypoperfusion.
When there is high clinical suspicion for bowel ischemia, our MDCT protocol is modified to optimize visualization of the mesenteric arteries and any associated abnormalities.
3) Early diagnosis, resection of infarcted bowel, restoration of blood flow, supportive intensive care, and the cause of bowel ischemia are among the factors that influence the mortality rate.
Surgical intervention (such as subtotal colectomy, peritoneal fixation of the colon, hepatopexy) may required in patients with persistent pain, refractory ileus, colonic volvulus or bowel ischemia.
With the addition of 122 cases of STME for lower GI hemorrhage from the literature, minor ischemia occurred in 13 (21%) of 62 patients who were evaluated objectively for bowel ischemia.
Gut bacteria produces endotoxin, which leaks into the bloodstream due to the increased gut permeability initiated by bowel ischemia.