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Related to Braille: Helen Keller, Louis Braille


(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.


A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.


Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing


(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
A non-profit braille publisher, National Braille Press promotes literacy for blind children through outreach programs and provides access to information by producing information in braille for blind children and adults.
Inspection set logic for performing multiple inspections including Braille and barcode
The time-consuming nature of learning braille is a major drawback for those considering a commitment to this goal.
The head of Ibsar, Tawfiq Bulu, said the organisation currently has 507 registered members who can read braille, and 667 registered vision-impaired individuals who cannot read braille but can read regular text in enlarged fonts.
Each Braille character is made up of six dots positioned in two columns of three dots each.
Such a filing system requires some coordination so that the braille users may be able to retrieve the necessary hymns for worship.
With today's technologically advanced machinery, one would imagine that applying Braille to packaging wouldn't be a problem; but, the reality is very different, especially when faced with mass production and compliance with strict controls and GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices), where the risk of noncompliance could have a detrimental consequence on the bottom line and market presence.
Hats off to Christopher Norton and Scott McBride Smith for having the insight to extend their exciting new American Popular Piano series to visually impaired students through Braille editions of the repertoire books in the series.
Louis Braille died in 1852 aged just 43, but his system of reading using raised dots is still used by the blind today.