Braille

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Related to Braille alphabet: Louis Braille

Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
Louis Braille, a boy from France, was 15 years old when he invented the Braille alphabet used by the blind.
For receptive communication with the general public, the more portable Tellatouch and/or braille alphabet cards were used (see table).
Give all the children a copy of the Braille alphabet and encourage them to write messages using a Braille writer or slate and stylus.
Participants were observed in their technique, participated in discussions about the use of braille, and drilled each other on letters of the braille alphabet using the large manipulatable braille cells.
To make their own textured Braille Alphabet, puff paint, thick fabric paint, or dots of white glue will produce sturdy raised dots for them to feel.
Included is an orientation/mobility evaluation procedure, an independent living skills assessment process, information on how to make a large print telephone directory, an application for exemption from directory assistance, a braille alphabet form, and a resources form.
Writing: Using no references, it is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to write the 26 letters of the braille alphabet with a Perkins brailler with no more than one error.
Thanks to the generous donation of the American Legion Child Welfare Foundation, and the help of the National Organization of Parents of Blind Children, each child will receive an American Braille Flag, along with a Braille booklet titled "Americanism 2011," containing the following information: Evolution of the United States Flag; Holidays to display your flag; The History of Flag Day; History of the American Braille Flag; Description of the American Braille Flag; and Braille Alphabet Card.
Although many parents knew at least the braille alphabet (20 of the 31 participants), only 3 of the 31 indicated that they know contracted braille.
The tactile Braille alphabet is a set of characters or cells arranged in one of 63 possible dot patterns consisting of one to six dots designed for reading by touch.