Braille

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Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
It took about four weeks for him to write braille with enough pressure for it to be readable, even with an American Printing House for the Blind (APH) Light Touch Brailler.
The method of Brailling differs as some institutions use Perkins Braillers while others use embossing machines.
Tuck Tinsley, APH President, says, "We are proud and thrilled to present the Next Generation Perkins/APH Brailler to the world today in Louisville.
Box 1 Tools used by students to complete schoolwork BrailleNote Braille Plus Computer with Jaws Computer with WindowEyes Computer with MAGIC Victor Reader Victor Wave Victor Stream Victor Vibe BookPort OCR scanner Electronic braille embosser Brailliant 24 Cell phone with Mobile Speak Digital recorder GPS system Perkins brailler Braille label maker Cassette tape player Books on tape Books on CD Large Print Talking Calculator Electronic books from BookShare RFB&D and WebBraille Franklin Language Master/Talking Dictionary
The majority of participants had sought additional training on the devices listed in the survey, and some sought additional training in the Bookport (APH), Mountbatten brailler, augmentative communication devices, switches, talking tactile tablet, and iPad.
She has excelled academically and uses several adaptive devices such as a Perkins Brailler, braille notetakers, and computers with speech output programs in her everyday life.
Discussion: The study did not reveal consistent differences among the students between the outcomes of instruction with the traditional Perkins Brailler and paper or the electronic braille notetaker with a refreshable braille display.
Table 1 also includes data on the tools that the students in the programs used to produce braille, including the Perkins Brailler, slate and stylus, braille emulation software (such as Perky Duck), braille-translation software (like Duxbury Braille Translation for Windows, Braille 2000), and electronic tools (including a notetaker and the Mountbatten Brailler).
Following scribe are the use of a "typewriter or word processor" (82%) and the use of a brailler (80%).
David Brailler, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CareScience Inc.
All the practitioners taught their students to produce braille using the Perkins brailler, 6 taught slate and stylus skills, 11 taught students to use por table notetakers, and 7 taught students to use braille-translation software.
One student used the Mountbatten Brailler because her finger strength was limited because of a physical condition, and the other used a Braille-Note.