Neurochemistry

(redirected from Brain chemistry)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.

neurochemistry

[¦nu̇r·ō′kem·ə·strē]
(biochemistry)
Chemistry of the nervous system.

Neurochemistry

 

the study of the biochemistry of the nervous system. Neurochemistry is concerned with the chemical composition and metabolism of nerve tissue.

Neurochemistry differs from the biochemistry of the other organs and tissues because the nerve tissue and the various divisions of the nervous system are so highly heterogeneous in their function, biochemistry, and morphology (the nervous system consists of two types of cells—neurons and neuroglia). Research using individual cells or very small tissue specimens is of particular value and requires the use of special ultramicrochemical methods. The development of neurochemistry in the USSR is mainly associated with A. V. Palladin’s work, carried out from 1922 to 1972, and G. E. Vladimirov’s research during the years 1942 to 1960. Evolutionary neurochemistry is associated with the research that E. M. Kreps initiated in 1945.

The topics studied in neurochemistry can be divided into four specific areas of interest: (1) the biochemistry of the transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses and the related metabolism of the chemical transmitters, (2) the biochemistry of neurotrophic influences; (3) the biochemical effects of external stimuli on the receptors of the sense organs, and (4) the influence of hormones and other agents transported by the blood, as well as the influence of many pharmacological agents on the metabolism of the nervous system. Functional neurochemistry is concerned with the interrelationship between biochemical and physiological processes in the nervous system, as well as with the biochemistry of excitation and inhibition, sleep, memory, and learning.

Neurochemistry has important practical applications in neuropharmacology (particularily psychopharmacology), in neuropathology, and in psychiatry. In the USSR, neurochemical research is conducted at universities and medical institutes, as well as at many institutes that are attached to the republic academies and to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Abroad, research is undertaken at many institutions, including the Institute of Physiology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague, the universities of Belgrade (Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia) and Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); the Institute for Neurochemistry of New York State; the Center for Neurochemistry in Strasbourg, France; and Keio University in Tokyo, Japan. All-Union conferences on neurochemistry have been held regularly since 1953. The international journal that is concerned with problems of neurochemistry is the Journal of Neurochemistry, first issued in 1956.

REFERENCES

McIlwain, H. Biokhimiia i tsentral’naia nervnaia sistema. Moscow, 1962.
(Translated from English.)
Vladimirov, G. E., and N. S. Panteleeva. Funktsional’naia biokhimiia. Leningrad, 1965.
Goncharova, E. E., N. M. Poliakova, and Ts. M. Shtutman. Biokhimiia nervnoi sistemy. Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’otechestvennoi literatury, 1868–1954. Kiev, 1957.
Gaito, J. Molekuliarnaia psikhobiologiia. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)
Palladin, A. V., Ia. V. Belik, and N. M. Poliakova. Belki golovnogo mozga i ikh obmen. Kiev, 1972.
Handbook of Neurochemistry, vols. 1–7. New York-London, 1969–72.

N. N. DEMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Addictive eating grows out of a complex mix of inherited vulnerabilities to brain chemistry imbalances, early learning, current stress, cultural influences and exposure to substances that are noxious to a specific person's brain.
He says we crave certain foods as they change our brain chemistry, making us feel happy or relaxed.
At least one type of friendly bacteria can send signals from the intestines through the vagus nerve in the neck to influence brain chemistry and change behavior in mice, researchers report (SN: 10/8/11, p.
NEAR-DEATH experiences are caused by brain chemistry rather than paranormal activity, researchers claim.
Parkinson's occurs when a brain chemistry imbalance disrupts motor nerve pathways, leading to symptoms of shaking, slowness of movement and rigidity.
Experts believe memory problems are caused by the effects of treatment, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapies, or due to the way the cancer tumours grow and behave, which could change brain chemistry.
In the spirit of Hallowe'en we delve into one aspect of brain chemistry and fear in our Q and A.
Craving for Ecstasy land Natural Highs is about addictive behaviour and pleasure seekling and the underlying brain chemistry that serves as a common denominator for a variety of addictive behaviours and compulsions, including sex, eating, television watching, internet use, and, of course, drug use.
Binge eating is a psychological disorder, and clinical psychologist Cynthia Bulik explore its link to genetics and brain chemistry as well as cultural and social issues.
and her colleagues wrote of specific changes in the brain chemistry of the newly smitten as well as recently rejected people (Arch.
A recent Harvard study found that healthy, older adults with no memory problems who took 500 mg of citicoline for six weeks had changes in brain chemistry suggesting an increased production of phospholipids.
Never suggesting crime can be blamed on biology, this undergraduate textbook methodically surveys the results of recent studies on twins and adoption, hormones, fetal development, brain chemistry, structural brain imaging, diet, and toxins.