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blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleenspleen,
soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes them.
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, kidney, lungslungs,
elastic organs used for breathing in vertebrate animals, excluding most fish, which use gills, and a few amphibian species that respire through the skin. The word is sometimes applied to the respiratory apparatus of lower animals.
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, brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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, and heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. The acute emergency known as myocardial infarction or heart attack is usually caused by a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The blockage typically occurs when a blood clot (see thrombosisthrombosis
, obstruction of an artery or vein by a blood clot (thrombus). Arterial thrombosis is generally more serious because the supply of oxygen and nutrition to an area of the body is halted.
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) lodges in an area already narrowed by arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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; other causes are vasospasms in the arterial walls or viral infection of the heart. Symptoms include a crushing pain in the chest radiated to either arm (more commonly the left arm), the jaw, and the neck. The pain may be experienced, particularly in women, as pain in the shoulder or stomach, instead of the chest, and in some cases there are no symptoms at all. The seriousness of the infarction is dependent upon the amount of heart muscle affected, how long the area is deprived of blood, and whether it affects the natural pacemaker of the heart, setting off arrhythmiasarrhythmia
, disturbance in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. Various arrhythmias can be symptoms of serious heart disorders; however, they are usually of no medical significance except in the presence of additional symptoms.
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 such as ventricular fibrillation. Death of heart muscle tissue and heart failure may result (see congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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); damage to other vital organs, including the brain, may occur if the heart is unable to pump necessary oxygen and blood to them. Confirmation of myocardial infarction is made by electrocardiographyelectrocardiography
, science of recording and interpreting the electrical activity that precedes and is a measure of the action of heart muscles. Since 1887, when Augustus Waller demonstrated the possibility of measuring such action, physicians and physiologists have recorded
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 and measurement of elevations of white blood cells and certain enzymes. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction may include first aid in the form of cardiopulmonary resuscitationcardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR), emergency procedure used to treat victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest. CPR can be done in a hospital with drugs and special equipment or as a first-aid technique.
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 (CPR), an emergency balloon angioplastyangioplasty
, any surgical repair of a blood vessel, especially balloon angioplasty or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, a treatment of coronary artery disease.
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, or the administration of beta-blockersbeta-blocker
or beta-adrenergic blocking agent
, drug that reduces the symptoms connected with hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, migraine headaches, and other disorders related to the sympathetic nervous system.
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 and thrombolytic drugsthrombolytic drug
or clot-dissolving drug,
substance, such as streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), that causes the breakdown of blood clots (see thrombosis) that obstruct the flow of blood through the vessels.
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 (clot-dissolving drugs), such as tissue plasminogen activator. The healing of an infarction occurs through replacement of the dead tissue by scar tissue.

See also coronary artery diseasecoronary artery disease,
condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
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Condition or process leading to the development of an infarct.
References in periodicals archive ?
Analysis of the results of localization of hemispheric brain infarction, depending on the age of patients, revealed that in all age groups the pathological process involves more often the left hemisphere (53.
2008), reveal that CI/R-induced brain infarction developed along with microglial cell activation and leukocyte infiltration in the infarct area which occurred in parallel with cerebral lipid peroxidation and protein nitrosylation in the damaged sites, indicating that oxidative and nitrosative stresses elicited by these inflammatory cells did contribute to the infarction.
18] classified brain infarctions into four groups according to the vascular territory affected.
The primary endpoint was platelet aggregation rate (PAR) induced by arachidonic acid at discharge, and the secondary endpoint was the rate of thrombotic events including brain infarction and myocardial infarction during follow-up.
An increased CIMT may help select patients at high risk for brain infarction and change in their lifestyle and prophylactic treatment with statins may prevent this devastating event.
DWI revolutionized the evaluation of patients with suspected stroke by providing exquisite sensitivity to the presence of brain infarction, virtually immediately after onset.
Furthermore, factors with a potential negative influence on cognition and brain volume loss, such as genetic characteristics, age, gender, and brain infarction were also considered," Perneczky added.
In a brain infarction, brain cells become necrotic due to reduced blood circulation in the brain caused by cholesterol piling up inside blood vessels or solidified blood clogging up blood vessels in the brain.
13 Molsidomine Treatment in the Prophylaxis of Delayed Ischemic Neurological Deficit (DIND) and Delayed Brain Infarction Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)
The inclusion criteria were a recent ischaemic stroke (within less than 90 days before randomization), defined by symptoms persisting for more than 24 hours or symptoms of a shorter duration but with evidence of a recent brain infarction on a computed tomographic scan or magnetic resonance imaging; clinical and neurologic stability before randomization; and an age of 55 years or older.

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