Georges Braque

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Braque, Georges

(zhôrzh bräk), 1882–1963, French painter. He joined the artists involved in developing fauvismfauvism
[Fr. fauve=wild beast], name derisively hurled at and cheerfully adopted by a group of French painters, including Matisse, Rouault, Derain, Vlaminck, Friesz, Marquet, van Dongen, Braque, and Dufy.
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 in 1905, and at l'Estaque c.1909 he was profoundly influenced by Cézanne. He met Picasso, and the two simultaneously explored form and structure with results that led to the development of cubismcubism,
art movement, primarily in painting, originating in Paris c.1907. Cubist Theory

Cubism began as an intellectual revolt against the artistic expression of previous eras.
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. In works such as the monumental Nude (1907–8; Cuttoli Coll., Paris) Braque exemplified the analytical phase of the movement with his keen sense of structure and orderly method of decomposing an object. In 1911 he introduced typographical letters into his canvases and soon began working in collagecollage
[Fr.,=pasting], technique in art consisting of cutting and pasting natural or manufactured materials to a painted or unpainted surface—hence, a work of art in this medium.
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. After World War I, in which he was badly wounded, Braque veered away from the angularity of early cubism and developed a more graceful, curvilinear style, predominantly painting still life. His works showed restraint and subtlety both in design and color (e.g., The Table, Pulitzer Coll., St. Louis). Braque is represented in leading galleries in Europe and the United States.

Bibliography

See his notebooks (tr. 1971); studies by W. Hofmann (1961), E. B. Mullins (1969), and F. Ponge et al. (tr. 1971).

Braque, Georges

 

Born May 13, 1882, in Argenteuil; died Aug. 31, 1963, in Paris. French artist; studied in the fine-arts schools of Le Havre and Paris.

Beginning in 1905, Braque painted landscapes in the spirit of fauvism. Beginning in 1908 he came under the influence of P. Cézanne; this made him, along with P. Picasso, a founder of cubism. In almost monochromatic cubist compositions (Still Life of Musical Instruments, 1908; Woman With Guitar, 1913—National Museum of Modern Art, Paris), Braque strove for abstraction of form and variety of texture. He included bits of paper and wood in his paintings and added sand to them. After 1917, Braque gradually moved away from cubism and painted flat canvases of more varied color (still life’s, landscapes, and pictures with human figures), in which the line achieved an almost ornamental expressiveness and flexibility. Braque also worked as a graphic artist, sculptor, and theater artist.

REFERENCE

Hauert, R., and A. Verdet. Georges Braque. Geneva, 1956.
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