(redirected from Breast examination)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial.


1. Education
a. written exercises, oral questions, or practical tasks, set to test a candidate's knowledge and skill
b. (as modifier): an examination paper
2. Med
a. physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body, in order to verify health or diagnose disease
b. laboratory study of secretory or excretory products, tissue samples, etc., esp in order to diagnose disease
3. Law the formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness



(Russian, ekzamen), in the USSR, a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of a student or of a person graduating from or entering an educational institution. Unlike tests (zachety), examinations—both oral and written—are always graded.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the system of examinations that existed in Russia was abolished. The following examinations were made compulsory in the 1930’s: annual promotion examinations in general-education schools, beginning in fourth grade; admission, or entrance, examinations for higher and specialized secondary educational institutions; and semester final and state graduation examinations in higher and specialized secondary educational institutions.

In 1944 graduation examinations were instituted for students of incomplete secondary and secondary schools. According to the Statute on the Secondary General-Education School of 1970, the procedure for administering examinations in secondary general-education schools is determined by the ministries of education (or public education) of the Union republics. Compulsory graduation examinations are given in the eighth and 10th (or 11th) grades. Students who pass them receive a certificate of completion of an eight-year school or a certificate of secondary education. Promotion examinations may be instituted for the fourth through seventh grades and the ninth (or 10th) grade by the ministry of education (or public education) of a Union republic. There may be no more than three such examinations per grade. The certificate of completion of an eight-year school and the certificate of secondary education may also be received through the system of extramural education.

In higher and specialized secondary educational institutions, the time and procedure for administering competitive entrance examinations, semester finals, and state graduation examinations are determined by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR according to the type of school. Students who have passed all tests are permitted to take the semester final examinations, and students who have passed all the semester finals may take the graduation examinations.

At many institutions of higher learning and at many technicums, defense of a diploma project or diploma thesis replaces state examinations in special disciplines. Vocational-technical schools and vocational courses give qualifying examinations for certain ratings, or ranks, in various lines of work. In addition to qualifying examinations, secondary vocational-technical schools also give graduation examinations in general-education subjects.


Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb.dokumentov 1917–1973. Moscow, 1974. Pages 161–64, 170–72, 228–35,420–36.


What does it mean when you dream about an examination?

Dreaming about taking a test could indicate that the dreamer has a fear of failure. Alternatively, such a dream could indicate that a specific issue of great importance to the dreamer reminds them of being in school. “Passing the test” can also be a metaphor for successfully concluding any number of different activities.

References in periodicals archive ?
Without clinical breast examination we wouldn't have missed a single cancer.
20] Information, collected on the card included a patient identifier, patient age, first visit to the practice (yes/no), reason for visit (physical examination, chronic condition, breast-related visit), personal history of breast cancer, family history of breast cancer, physician's perceived expectation for compliance by the patient (will/will not comply), previous mammogram results (normal, abnormal), breast examination (done/not done, normal/abnormal, suggestive of cancer), physician's perception that a mammogram is indicated (yes/no), mammogram ordered (yes/no), and patient's expected method of paying for a mammogram (patient pays/insurance co-pays/do not know).
05), and the proportion having had a physical breast examination rose from 59% to 73% (p [is less than] 0.
The challenges will be to identify the appropriate population for screening, how frequently they should be screened, and the use of clinical breast examination, mammography, and ultrasound," she said.
MRI wasn't as good at distinguishing carcinoma from benign breast disease, with a specificity of 88%, compared with 95% for mammography and 97% for clinical breast examination.
Sachidanand Kumar also denied performing unnecessary breast examinations or carrying out a check while a teenager was in a chair.
Recent national interviews revealed that between 42% and 58% of women aged 45 to 64 years had received a breast examination in the past year (3) and monthly breast self-examination performance was reported by only 20% to 40% of women in surveys conducted by the National Cancer Institute (1979) and American Cancer Society (1980).
E[acute accent]Manual breast examination is the oldest and most established method of breast examination accessible to all women.
But the tribunal heard Patient A's allegations about an intimate exam; a breast examination where Dr Banerjee is alleged to have cupped and/or squeezed her breasts; and a consultation where she alleges she was told to remove her underwear but not told why, were not recorded by the manager or ICAS.
The NBSC which is affiliated to the MoH, revealed that in 1999 only 250 women visited the centre for a breast examination.
Dear Miriam I'VE read that wearing a super-sensitive bra can check on the health of your breasts better than doing your own monthly breast examination.