Expression of recombinant bromelain was conducted as described in our earlier studies [13,14].
The bromelain activity was measured on N-[alpha]-cbz-L-Gln-p-nitrophenyl ester using the Silverstein's method  with modification.
5 % w/v) were supplemented to the purified bromelain preparations.
The recombinant bromelain solutions were dried using a laboratory Buchi Mini Spray-Dryer B-290 (Buchi Labortechnik AG, Flawil, Switzerland) with a 0.
Bromelain has long been known to contain powerful proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzymes, which are beneficial in digestive enhancement.
Athletes are increasingly turning to bromelain to help manage sports injuries, and those undergoing surgery are using it to speed their recovery time.
In addition to its potent anti-inflammatory effects, scientists have recently discovered that bromelain exhibits tumor- fighting properties which are now being explored in the hope of finding a new anti-cancer drug.
Numerous studies have shown that bromelain can be as effective as anti-inflammatory drugs for dealing with the pain of osteoarthritis.
Bromelain is the name given to the crude aqueous extract obtained from the stem and fruit of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus Merr.
For example, bromelain was shown to significantly reduce pain response to a high degree when bradykinin was applied directly onto surgically denuded blisters in healthy male subjects (Bodi, 1966).
As well as evidence from animal studies, a number of human studies have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of orally administered bromelain (Maurer, 2001).
Whilst clinical observations or small-scale studies have shown promising anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain for ulcerative colitis (Kane and Goldberg, 2000) and urogenital tract inflammation (Lotti et al.