Brongniart, Alexandre


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Brongniart, Alexandre

(älĕksäN`drə brôNyär`), 1770–1847, French geologist, mineralogist, and chemist. As director of the Sèvres porcelain factory from 1800, he was responsible for its international fame. He was professor of mineralogy at the Museum of Natural History in Paris from 1822–47. Brongniart established basic principles of ceramic chemistry in his Traité des arts céramiques et des poteries (1844). With George CuvierCuvier, Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert, Baron
, 1769–1832, French naturalist, b. Montbéliard, studied at the academy of Stuttgart. From 1795 he taught in the Jardin des Plantes.
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 he wrote Essai sur la geographie mineralogique des environs de Paris (1811), in which a system of stratigraphy was developed that relied on the use of fossils for the precise dating of strata. He was also the first to develop a systematic study of trilobites and a system for the classification of reptiles.

Brongniart, Alexandre

 

Born Feb. 5, 1770, in Paris; died there Oct. 7, 1847. French geologist. Member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1815).

Brongniart was professor of natural history from 1797 and professor of mineralogy from 1822 in Paris. Together with G. Cuvier, he established a scheme of the stratigraphic division of Tertiary deposits of the Paris basin. He introduced the concept of index fossils and helped create the paleontological method in stratigraphy. In 1813 he proposed a mineralogical classification of rocks and gave a series of new designations (diabase, melaphyre, psammite, and others). In 1829 he published a chronological scale of all suites known at that time on the basis of paleontological characteristics and independent of their lithological composition. From 1800 he was director of the Sèvres Porcelain Factory, where he organized a famous ceramics museum.

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