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The photoinitiators transform into free radicals for the acrylate chemistry or Bronsted acids for the cationic chemistry (Figure 4).
Onium salts are known as a novel class of stable, non-hygroscopic, highly efficient photoinitiators; they are latent sources of cation radicals and Bronsted acids which can be generated on demand by irradiation.
The heteroconjugation between Bronsted acids (phenols, carboxylic acids, and alcohols) and small inorganic anions has been explained as a separation mechanism in acetonitrile [11].