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(all: broi`gəl, Du. brö`gəl), outstanding family of Flemish genre and landscape painters. The foremost, Pieter Bruegel, the Elder, c.1525–1569, called Peasant Bruegel, studied in Antwerp with his future father-in-law, Pieter Coeck van Aelst, but was influenced primarily by BoschBosch, Hieronymus,
or Jerom Bos
, c.1450–1516, Flemish painter. His surname was originally van Aeken; Bosch refers to 's-Hertogenbosch (popularly called Den Bosch), where he was born and worked.
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. In 1551 he became a member of the Antwerp Guild. Bruegel visited Italy in the early 1550s. He remained close, however, to the Flemish tradition and employed his native powers of minute observation in depicting the whole living world of field and forest and of sturdy peasants at work and play. He was, himself, a learned city-dweller and friend of humanists. His paintings of genre subjects have allegorical or moralizing significance. In his tremendous range of invention, Bruegel approached Bosch in creating nightmarish fantasies in such works as The Fall of the Rebel Angels (Brussels). He also painted cheerful, acutely perceived scenes of daily life, e.g., Peasant Wedding (Vienna), for which he is best known. In the Fall of Icarus (versions in Brussels and New York), his only mythological subject, the title character is reduced to a tiny figure barely noticeable in a large genre scene.

Bruegel's range of subjects includes religious histories—Numbering at Bethlehem (Brussels), Way to Calvary (Vienna), with figures clothed in contemporary Flemish dress; parables—The Sower (Antwerp), The Blind Leading the Blind (Naples); genre scenes—Children's Games, Peasant Dance (both: Vienna); landscapes showing the activities of the months—(several in Vienna, Harvesters in the Metropolitan Mus.); and other works. A skilled draftsman and etcher, he used a delicate line to define his figures. His people are stubby in proportion, but lively and solid. His color is remarkably sensitive, as is his feeling for landscape. His compositions are often based on diagonal lines and S-curves, creating gentle rhythms and allowing planes of landscape to unfold into the distance.


See studies by L. Münz (1961), W. Stechow (1971), F. Grossmann (3d ed. 1973), and N. M. Orenstein, ed. (2001).

His son, Pieter Bruegel, the Younger, 1564–1637, often copied his father's works. Two of his paintings are in the Metropolitan Museum. His brother, Jan Bruegel, 1568–1625, called Velvet Bruegel, specialized in still life, rendered with extreme smoothness and finesse. He was a friend of Rubens, and occasionally supplied floral ornaments for works from Rubens's shop. He was also adept at landscape. Representative works are in Brussels and Berlin.


, Bruegel, Breughel
1. Jan . 1568--1625, Flemish painter, noted for his detailed still lifes and landscapes
2. his father, Pieter , called the Elder. ?1525--69, Flemish painter, noted for his landscapes, his satirical paintings of peasant life, and his allegorical biblical scenes
3. his son, Pieter, called the Younger. ?1564--1637, Flemish painter, noted for his gruesome pictures of hell
References in periodicals archive ?
Le pacte de Deauville n'etait pas un bon cru, ca a cree de l'ambiguite sur les conditions d'implication des creanciers prives", deplore le directeur de Bruegel.
In a new paper titled "Europe's growth emergency," Bruegel researchers Zsolt Darvas and Jean Pisani-Ferry advocate temporary wage-price subsidies or tax breaks to help restore competitiveness; industrial policies should also be considered to funnel capital and labor to the export sector if an overvalued real exchange rate is a deterrent to investors.
The experts experimented with the works of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, a 16th century Flemish painter, as part of the project.
In Dieter Bruegel the Elder's 1558 drawing entitled Elck, Bruegel's Everyman seeks himself (in vain) in the detritus of the world he inhabits.
And his speech to the Bruegel think-tank in Brussels emphasises that establishing the EU's global brand does not come down to one individual.
Pieter Bruegel was the most perfect of his century," said Flemish cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius eulogizing his friend, who "was taken from us while still in his full manhood.
But they had the clever idea of writing in first person, as Bruegel himself.
In each of Pieter Bruegel the Elder's famous 16th century illustrations of the Seven Deadly Sins, a symbolic animal occupies center stage.
Manfred Sellink and Ludion Press have produced a useful tribute to the work of Pieter Bruegel.
Juliana Bronzova reported on behalf of the Bruegel Study Group in a poster at the 12th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders.
Pieter Bruegel is thought to have shown an early form of the game in two of his works; the first entitled Winter Landscape with Skaters and a Birdtrap and the second Hunters in the Snow.