Bettelheim, Bruno

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Bettelheim, Bruno

(bĕt`əlhīm'), 1903–90, American developmental psychologist, b. Austria. He received his doctoral degree (1938) from the Univ. of Vienna. He was imprisoned in the Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps during the Nazi occupation of Austria. After emigrating to the United States in 1939, he published (1943) a highly influential essay on the psychology of concentration camp prisoners. He taught psychology at the Univ. of Chicago (1944–73) and directed the Chicago-based Orthogenic School for children with emotional problems, placing special emphasis on the treatment of autismautism
, developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning. Males are affected four times as often as females.
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. Bettelheim believed that autistic children had been raised in unstimulating environments during the first few years of their lives, when language and motor skills were developing. Although his theories on autism have been largely discredited, he authored a number of influential works on child development, including The Informed Heart (1960), The Empty Fortress (1967), and The Uses of Enchantment (1976).

Bettelheim, Bruno

(1903–90) psychotherapist, author; born in Vienna, Austria. He studied with Freud, whom he revered, and graduated from the University of Vienna (1938). During the Nazi regime, he was imprisoned at Dachau and Buchenwald (1938–39); his 1943 article on his experiences and insights would gain him wide recognition. Upon his release, he moved to the United States and worked at the University of Chicago (1939–42, 1944–73). As head of the university's Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School, a treatment center for severely disturbed children (1944–73), he developed a deinstitutionalized environment of total support. He became particularly admired for his work with autistic children—although some of his methods were controversial—and in later years he published advice in the popular media on raising normal children. He published two books on the Nazi death camps, The Informed Heart: Autonomy in a Mass Age (1960) and Surviving and Other Essays (1979; reprinted in 1986 as Surviving the Holocaust). He wrote more than 20 books on psychotherapy, including Love Is Not Enough: The Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children (1950), The Children of the Dream (1969), and Freud and Man's Soul (1982).
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He is the author of Being for The Other: Emmanuel Levinas, Ethical Living and Psychoanalysis; Autonomy in the Extreme Situation: Bruno Bettelheim, the Nazi Concentration Camps, and the Mass Society and Ancient Religious Wisdom, Spirituality and Psychoanalysis, among other books.
The idea was promoted by psychologist Bruno Bettelheim, whose 1967 book, The Empty Fortress, described autism as a psychological disorder that was heavily influenced by parents' actions.
Bruno Bettelheim (1967), who headed the University of Chicago's Orthogenic School, supported the psychoanalytic dissection of the parent-child relationship resulting in the blamethe-parent mentality which carried over into the speculation about the cause of autism.
The hypothesis was popularized by Austrian-born American child psychologist and writer Bruno Bettelheim.
NATIONAL BOOK AWARD FOR NONFICTION THE USES OF ENCHANTMENT: THE MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF FAIRY TALES | BRUNO BETTELHEIM
Any such an evaluation would be enriched and strengthened by reference to such authorities as Jack Zipes (many titles), Max Luthi On the Nature of Fairy Tales, J C Cooper Fairy Tales; Allegories of the Inner Life, Bruno Bettelheim The Uses of Enchantment, and others.
Based on the story by the Brothers Grimm, her recent exhibition "Hansel & Gretel" evoked the sexually charged fear and violence that, as Bruno Bettelheim ascertained long ago, underlie many childhood stories.
Among the victims were the psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim, the writer Stefan Zweig, the psychologist Charlotte BE-hler, the composer Egon Wellesz and the jurist and later prime minister Bruno Kreisky.
Among the victims were the psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim, the writer Stefan Zweig, the psychologist Charlotte BEaA-hler, the composer Egon Wellesz and the jurist and later prime minister Bruno Kreisky.
In The Uses of Enchantment, Bruno Bettelheim explains precisely the state of mind that impels the young boy to challenge this metallic dragon.
The Exiles records the living testimonies of a handful of these then-elderly survivors of Europe's twentieth century genocide, many of whom have died since the film was made, including the suicide of Psychiatrist Bruno Bettelheim (in 1990).
The roster of those who devoted at least some of their time to clinic practice includes many familiar names: Sigmund and Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung, Bruno Bettelheim, Melanie Klein, Wilhelm Reich, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, and Alfred Adler.