Buñuel, Luis


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Buñuel, Luis

(lo͞oēs` bo͞onyo͞oĕl`), 1900–83, Spanish film director, b. Calanda, Aragón. In his best films, he used poetic, often bizarre imagery and black humor to question and undermine all claims of authority and knowledge. His adherence to surrealismsurrealism
, literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and free of convention.
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 can be seen clearly in his first film, Un Chien andalou (1928). This and his following film, L'Age d'or (1930), were made in Paris in collaboration with Salvadore DalíDalí, Salvador
, 1904–89, Spanish painter. At first influenced by futurism, in 1924 Dalí came under the influence of the Italian painter de Chirico and by 1929 he had become a leader of surrealism.
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. After a 20-year period of relative inactivity, Buñuel reemerged as a director in Mexico. Los olvidados (1949) combined a social critique of slum conditions in Mexico City with an interest in dreams and weird visual effects. He was at odds with social niceties and perpetually at war with the Roman Catholic Church as he exposed hypocrisy and the persistence of human cruelty. Viridiana (1961), a scurrilous allegory of FrancoFranco, Francisco
, 1892–1975, Spanish general and caudillo [leader]. He became a general at the age of 32 after commanding the Spanish Foreign Legion in Morocco.
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's Spain, was made there at the dictator's invitation and then banned. Many of his later works were made in France. Buñuel's other films include The Exterminating Angel (1962), Diary of a Chambermaid (1964), Belle de Jour (1966), The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1972), and That Obscure Object of Desire (1977).

Bibliography

See his autobiography, My Last Sigh (1982).

Buñuel, Luis

 

Born Feb. 22, 1900, in the city of Calanda. Film director; Spanish by nationality.

Buñuel studied in the history department of the University of Madrid. From 1924 he lived in Paris and took part in the avant-garde movement; he made surrealistic films, such as An Andalusian Dog (1928, scenario jointly with S. Dali) and L’Age d’Or (1930). In 1932, in Spain, Buñuel shot the documentary film Land Without Bread concerning the life of poor people and the poverty of the Spanish peasantry. Since 1946 he has worked primarily in Mexico. Among the films which he made there are Los Olvidados (1950) and Nazarin (1958, based on the novel by B. Pérez Galdós). In 1960, in Spain, Buñuel produced his film Viridiana, which condemns religious hypocrisy and the system of life in present-day Spain. Among his other films are The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1955), The Exterminating Angel (1962), Diary of a Chambermaid (1963, based on a work of the same name by O. Mirbeau), Simon of the Desert (1964), and Belle de Jour (1967).

Buñuel’s creative work is permeated with expressions of protest against social injustice and moral and religious prejudices. The means of expression and stylistic devices utilized by Buñuel in most of his films are linked with the traditions of Spanish painting. Many of Buñuel’s films have won prizes at the international film festivals held in Cannes and Venice.

REFERENCES

Kyrou, A. Luis Buñuel. [Paris, 1963.]
Estève, M. Luis Buñuel, vols. 1-2. [Paris] 1962-63.