Bucer, Martin


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Bucer or Butzer, Martin

(byo͞o`sər, bo͞ot`sər), 1491–1551, German Protestant reformer born Martin Kuhhorn. At 14 years of age he joined the Dominican order, and he studied at Heidelberg, where he heard (1518) Luther in his public disputation on the doctrine of free will. Influenced by the reformist thought, Bucer left the order and accepted a pastorate at Landstuhl. In 1523 he entered upon the work of the Reformation in Strasbourg, where he helped to lay the foundations of the Protestant educational system. Many of his activities were attempts to reconcile the differences in regard to the Eucharist (see Lord's SupperLord's Supper,
Protestant rite commemorating the Last Supper. In the Reformation the leaders generally rejected the traditional belief in the sacrament as a sacrifice and as an invisible miracle of the actual changing of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ
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) that divided the Lutherans from the Swiss and S German reformers. Bucer's position was closer to that of the Swiss leader, Zwingli, and in this, as in other doctrinal matters, he is credited with a spiritual kinship to Calvin. In spite of his desire for unity, Bucer rejected the Augsburg Confession (see creedcreed
[Lat. credo=I believe], summary of basic doctrines of faith. The following are historically important Christian creeds.

1 The Nicene Creed, beginning, "I believe in one God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and
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), drawn up in 1530 in the hope of achieving religious peace. It was not until a personal meeting with Luther in 1536 that, in the Wittenberg Concord, Bucer was successful in securing agreement on the Eucharist among himself, Luther, and the reformers of S Germany. When Bucer failed to subscribe to the Augsburg Interim (1548)—a compromise between Roman Catholics and Protestants proposed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V—he found it expedient to accept the invitation of Cranmer and moved to England. There, highly honored, he taught at Cambridge and tutored Edward VI, at whose request he wrote De regno Christi.

Bucer, Martin

 

(also Martin Butzer). Born Nov. 11, 1491, in Schlettstadt; died Feb. 28, 1551, in Cambridge. Active figure in the radical middle-class Reformation in southwest Germany.

Bucer lived in Strasbourg from 1523 to 1549. He held a prominent position in a group of higher German reformers who, while following M. Luther, at the same time were more consistently overcoming Catholicism in theology and divine service. He had an influence on J. Calvin. In 1549, Bucer moved to England, became a professor in Cambridge, and took part in the English Reformation movement.

REFERENCES

Bornkamm, H. Martin Bucers Bedeutung. … Gütersloh, 1952. (With bibliography.)
Pollet, J. V. Martin Bucer …, vols. 1-2. Paris, 1958-62.