Buchenwald


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Buchenwald

(bo͞o`khənvält'), village, Thuringia, S central Germany, in the Buchenwald forest, near Weimar. It was the site of a large concentration campconcentration camp,
a detention site outside the normal prison system created for military or political purposes to confine, terrorize, and, in some cases, kill civilians.
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 established by the National Socialist (Nazi) regime in 1937. It held approximately 20,000 prisoners during World War II.

Buchenwald

 

a fascist German concentration camp. It was established in the environs of Weimar in 1937 and was originally called Ettersburg. About 239,000 people were imprisoned in Buchenwald over a period of eight years. In the beginning the inmates were German antifascists but later, during World War II, they included many other nationalities. Many prisoners had already died during the camp’s construction, which was done only by manual labor. The prisoners were also ruthlessly exploited by owners of large industrial firms whose enterprises were located near Buchenwald, such as Siemens and Junkers. An especially large number of prisoners died in Dora, a branch of Buchenwald, where the V-l and V-2 missiles were manufactured underground. Inhuman living conditions, hunger, excessive work, and beatings resulted in mass deaths. About 10,000 prisoners were executed, including almost 8,500 Soviet prisoners of war. A total of 56,000 prisoners of 18 nationalities were tortured to death. E. Thälmann was brutally murdered by the Hitlerites in Buchenwald on Aug. 18, 1944. From the time Buchenwald was organized, an underground antifascist organization headed by communists began forming in the camp. In 1943 an international camp committee was set up, headed by the German communist W. Bartel. By early April 1945 the organization numbered 178 groups of three to five people each, including 56 Soviet groups. On Apr. 11, 1945, when the fascist German troops were being routed in World War II, the Buchenwald prisoners, headed by an international political center, raised a rebellion that resulted in the camp’s liquidation by the rebels. In 1958 a majestic complex of structures dedicated to the heroes and victims of Buchenwald was unveiled in Buchenwald.

REFERENCES

Voina za koliuchei provolokoi. [Moscow, I960.]
Bartel, W. “Sovmestnaia bor’ba nemetskikh i sovetskikh bortsov Soprotivleniia v Bukhenval’de.” Novaia i noveishaia istoriia, 1958, no. 3.
Sviridov, G. I. Ring za koliuchei provolokoi (Geroii Bukhenval’da), 4th ed. Moscow, 1963.
Bukhenval’d: Dokumenty i soobshcheniia. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)

Buchenwald

showcase of Nazi atrocities. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 1055]

Buchenwald

a village in E central Germany, near Weimar; site of a Nazi concentration camp (1937--45)
References in periodicals archive ?
Around 250,000 prisoners were held at Buchenwald from July 1937 to April 1945.
Buchenwald was the first major concentration camp entered by American forces at the end of World War II.
However If Buchenwald repre| sents a low point in German history, then Weimar also represented a high point, too.
But when the American army liberated Buchenwald in 1945, he found out that the Nazis had killed his parents; of his five siblings, only one, like him, had survived the Holocaust.
muerte de quienes se encontraban con el en Buchenwald.
Another chilling experience, in Weimar itself, was to stay in the exotically named Hotel Elephant in the ancient town of Weimar, just a few miles from Buchenwald, which was linked by a local bus service.
Implementing agency : Stiftung GedenkstEntten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora
Critique: An inherently fascinating and informative read from beginning to end, "Fighting Fascism And Surviving Buchenwald : The Life and Memoir of Hans Bergas" is an invaluable and much appreciated addition to the growing library of World War II Biographies and Holocaust Studies.
As a black mayor, after the defeat of France, he is obviously rejected by the German occupiers, dismissed from his functions, and then sent to Buchenwald.
Major organization : STIFTUNG GEDENKSTEaTTEN BUCHENWALD UND MITTELBAU-DORA
The Auschwitz extermination/concentration camp, the Buchenwald concentration camp, Dachau, and the Warsaw Ghetto count for four such places, more than enough horror for ensuing generations to absorb.