Buchenwald

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Buchenwald

(bo͞o`khənvält'), village, Thuringia, S central Germany, in the Buchenwald forest, near Weimar. It was the site of a large concentration campconcentration camp,
a detention site outside the normal prison system created for military or political purposes to confine, terrorize, and, in some cases, kill civilians.
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 established by the National Socialist (Nazi) regime in 1937. It held approximately 20,000 prisoners during World War II.

Buchenwald

 

a fascist German concentration camp. It was established in the environs of Weimar in 1937 and was originally called Ettersburg. About 239,000 people were imprisoned in Buchenwald over a period of eight years. In the beginning the inmates were German antifascists but later, during World War II, they included many other nationalities. Many prisoners had already died during the camp’s construction, which was done only by manual labor. The prisoners were also ruthlessly exploited by owners of large industrial firms whose enterprises were located near Buchenwald, such as Siemens and Junkers. An especially large number of prisoners died in Dora, a branch of Buchenwald, where the V-l and V-2 missiles were manufactured underground. Inhuman living conditions, hunger, excessive work, and beatings resulted in mass deaths. About 10,000 prisoners were executed, including almost 8,500 Soviet prisoners of war. A total of 56,000 prisoners of 18 nationalities were tortured to death. E. Thälmann was brutally murdered by the Hitlerites in Buchenwald on Aug. 18, 1944. From the time Buchenwald was organized, an underground antifascist organization headed by communists began forming in the camp. In 1943 an international camp committee was set up, headed by the German communist W. Bartel. By early April 1945 the organization numbered 178 groups of three to five people each, including 56 Soviet groups. On Apr. 11, 1945, when the fascist German troops were being routed in World War II, the Buchenwald prisoners, headed by an international political center, raised a rebellion that resulted in the camp’s liquidation by the rebels. In 1958 a majestic complex of structures dedicated to the heroes and victims of Buchenwald was unveiled in Buchenwald.

REFERENCES

Voina za koliuchei provolokoi. [Moscow, I960.]
Bartel, W. “Sovmestnaia bor’ba nemetskikh i sovetskikh bortsov Soprotivleniia v Bukhenval’de.” Novaia i noveishaia istoriia, 1958, no. 3.
Sviridov, G. I. Ring za koliuchei provolokoi (Geroii Bukhenval’da), 4th ed. Moscow, 1963.
Bukhenval’d: Dokumenty i soobshcheniia. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)

Buchenwald

showcase of Nazi atrocities. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 1055]

Buchenwald

a village in E central Germany, near Weimar; site of a Nazi concentration camp (1937--45)
References in periodicals archive ?
They were first kept at Fresnes, a prison south of Paris, and then shipped via cattle car to the hellhole known as Buchenwald concentration camp.
Wajcer, who was a fellow-inmate with writer Elie Wiesel and with Israel Meir Lau, the current Grand Rabbi of the Ashkenazim of Israel, at Buchenwald concentration camp, continues to be interested in Polish culture.
Jorge Semprun was imprisoned in the Buchenwald concentration camp for eighteen months, from the time he was arrested at the age of nineteen until he was freed at the age of twenty-one (November 1943 to April 1945) and the concentration camp remains the defining experience of his life.
Just outside Weimar, though, lies a reminder of darker times - Buchenwald Concentration Camp, one of Hitler's extermination centres, which was then used for several years by the Soviet occupation forces.
Elie Wiesel's memoir Night was published in 1956, 11 years after he had been liberated from the Buchenwald concentration camp.
During the course of its presentation, the documentary visits a dozen of these camps, each of which is treated discretely and introduced with a graphic of a chipped brick wall upon which is superimposed, in block letters, PENIG (sic) CONCENTRATION CAMP, OHRDRUF CONCENTRATION CAMP, NORDHAUSEN CONCENTRATION CAMP, BUCHENWALD CONCENTRATION CAMP, DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP.
Afternoon Full Length Documentary - Lost Airmen of Buchenwald: This documentary chronicles the extraordinary journey of 168 Allied airmen illegally imprisoned in the Buchenwald Concentration Camp during World War II.
He was captured and sent to Buchenwald concentration camp.
Hal Willis, from Ottawa, and Halifax's Bill Gibson were two of 167 airmen who ended up at Buchenwald concentration camp in the fall of 1944.
LEOPOLD Karpelesz was angry when his daughter brought him home a booklet from her visit to Buchenwald concentration camp.
Jack and his fellow prisoners were loaded on to railway cattle trucks and taken to the notorious Buchenwald concentration camp.
Near the war's end, he was a liberator of the Buchenwald Concentration Camp.