Bucovina


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Bukovina

, Bucovina
a region of E central Europe, part of the NE Carpathians: the north was seized by the Soviet Union (1940) and later became part of Ukraine; the south remained Romanian

Bucovina

 

the historical name of a territory which formed a part of present-day Chernovtsy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR and the district of Suceava of the Socialist Republic of Rumania. The name is derived from the forests of beech [in Russian, buk] that covered a large part of the territory.

Northern Bucovina was inhabited during the first millennium by the East Slav tribes of Tivertsy and White Croats. At the present time the population of Northern Bucovina consists primarily of Ukrainians and Russians. Bucovina was part of Kievan Rus’ from the tenth to the 12th centuries and part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia from the 13th to the first half of the 14th centuries. In the 14th century it went over to the principality of Moldavia, from the early 16th century to 1774 it came under the rule of the Turks, and later it formed a part of Austria-Hungary until 1918. Part of Northern Bucovina was transferred to Russia as a result of the Bucharest Peace Treaty (1812). Northern Bucovina was closely associated with the Ukraine. The peasantry sided with Bogdan Khmel’nitskii during the Ukrainian people’s war for freedom in 1648-54. In the 1840’s a revolt led by L. Kobyiytsa occurred in Northern Bucovina. The Revolution of 1848 forced the Austrian government to abolish serfdom. The living conditions, however, remained barely tolerable; between 1901 and 1910 approximately 50,000 people, chiefly Ukrainians, emigrated.

The Revolution of 1905-07 in Northern Bucovina caused an expansion of the revolutionary movement and an increase in Bolshevik influence. Northern Bucovina was also caught up in the Great October Socialist Revolution. On Nov. 3, 1918, the Bucovina People’s Veche decided to reunite Northern Bucovina with the Soviet Ukraine and, on the same day, elected a provisional Central Committee of the Communist Party of Bucovina, headed by S. Kaniuk. Rumanian troops occupied Northern Bucovina in November 1918. In 1940, by an arrangement with Rumania, Northern Bucovina was returned to the USSR and reunited with the Ukrainian SSR, whereupon the territory became the Chernovtsy Oblast. During the Great Patriotic War underground Party and Komsomol organizations and partisan detachments were active in Northern Bucovina. In March and April 1944, Northern Bucovina was liberated from the fascist German troops by the Soviet Army.

Southern Bucovina was the home in ancient times of Walachians and Slavs. Today the area is inhabited primarily by Rumanians. In the 12th and 13th centuries it formed part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia, and in the 14th century it became a center for the formation of the feudal principality of Moldavia. In the early 16th century it fell under Turkish rule, and from 1774 to 1918 it formed part of the Austrian Empire. In 1918 it became part of Rumania, where it was one of the most economically backward regions. After the liberation of Southern Bucovina by the Soviet Army in 1944 and the establishment of people’s rule in the territory, Southern Bucovina was transformed into an industrial and agrarian region of the Socialist Republic of Rumania.

REFERENCES

Kompaniets, I. I. Stanovyshche i borot’ba trudiashchykh mas Hal’chyny, Bukovyny ta Zakarpattia no pochatku XX st. (1900-1919 roky). Kiev, 1960.
Grygorenko, O. S. Bukovyna vchora i s’’ ohodni. Kiev, 1967.

A. N. GLUGOVSKII

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