Bucovina


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Bukovina

, Bucovina
a region of E central Europe, part of the NE Carpathians: the north was seized by the Soviet Union (1940) and later became part of Ukraine; the south remained Romanian

Bucovina

 

the historical name of a territory which formed a part of present-day Chernovtsy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR and the district of Suceava of the Socialist Republic of Rumania. The name is derived from the forests of beech [in Russian, buk] that covered a large part of the territory.

Northern Bucovina was inhabited during the first millennium by the East Slav tribes of Tivertsy and White Croats. At the present time the population of Northern Bucovina consists primarily of Ukrainians and Russians. Bucovina was part of Kievan Rus’ from the tenth to the 12th centuries and part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia from the 13th to the first half of the 14th centuries. In the 14th century it went over to the principality of Moldavia, from the early 16th century to 1774 it came under the rule of the Turks, and later it formed a part of Austria-Hungary until 1918. Part of Northern Bucovina was transferred to Russia as a result of the Bucharest Peace Treaty (1812). Northern Bucovina was closely associated with the Ukraine. The peasantry sided with Bogdan Khmel’nitskii during the Ukrainian people’s war for freedom in 1648-54. In the 1840’s a revolt led by L. Kobyiytsa occurred in Northern Bucovina. The Revolution of 1848 forced the Austrian government to abolish serfdom. The living conditions, however, remained barely tolerable; between 1901 and 1910 approximately 50,000 people, chiefly Ukrainians, emigrated.

The Revolution of 1905-07 in Northern Bucovina caused an expansion of the revolutionary movement and an increase in Bolshevik influence. Northern Bucovina was also caught up in the Great October Socialist Revolution. On Nov. 3, 1918, the Bucovina People’s Veche decided to reunite Northern Bucovina with the Soviet Ukraine and, on the same day, elected a provisional Central Committee of the Communist Party of Bucovina, headed by S. Kaniuk. Rumanian troops occupied Northern Bucovina in November 1918. In 1940, by an arrangement with Rumania, Northern Bucovina was returned to the USSR and reunited with the Ukrainian SSR, whereupon the territory became the Chernovtsy Oblast. During the Great Patriotic War underground Party and Komsomol organizations and partisan detachments were active in Northern Bucovina. In March and April 1944, Northern Bucovina was liberated from the fascist German troops by the Soviet Army.

Southern Bucovina was the home in ancient times of Walachians and Slavs. Today the area is inhabited primarily by Rumanians. In the 12th and 13th centuries it formed part of the principality of Galicia-Volhynia, and in the 14th century it became a center for the formation of the feudal principality of Moldavia. In the early 16th century it fell under Turkish rule, and from 1774 to 1918 it formed part of the Austrian Empire. In 1918 it became part of Rumania, where it was one of the most economically backward regions. After the liberation of Southern Bucovina by the Soviet Army in 1944 and the establishment of people’s rule in the territory, Southern Bucovina was transformed into an industrial and agrarian region of the Socialist Republic of Rumania.

REFERENCES

Kompaniets, I. I. Stanovyshche i borot’ba trudiashchykh mas Hal’chyny, Bukovyny ta Zakarpattia no pochatku XX st. (1900-1919 roky). Kiev, 1960.
Grygorenko, O. S. Bukovyna vchora i s’’ ohodni. Kiev, 1967.

A. N. GLUGOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Iuliu Zanne, Proverbele romanilor din Romania, Basarabia, Bucovina.
A quiet locale, Bucovina offers a ludicrously pretty countryside that will help you pass time as you walk the easy 5 kilometers towards Humor Monastery.
Em junho de 1940, na ocasiao do pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop, as tropas russas violavam a integridade da Romenia neutra e ocupavam o norte da Bucovina.
Transylvania, Banat and Bucovina, brought along with their industry an army of workers who had fought in the realm of labor rights and had achieved, under the dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a real legislation on labor protection (Sturdza-Scheianu, 1980: 111).
1) One can look for example at Bucovina, at the present moment a part of Ukraine, till 1918 this region was under Austro-Hungarian administration, between 1918 and 1940--part of Romania, from 1940 part of Ukraine.
Painted monasteries of BucovinaTucked in the Carpathian foothills, the UNESCO-listed painted monasteries of Bucovina proudly show off Romania's unique, Latin-flavoured Orthodox tradition.
The most popular Romanian regions for rural tourism are Brasov (Bran-Moieciu, Fundata, Rasnov, Cristian), Bucovina, Maramures and Marginimea Sibiului.
In 1918, Transylvania, Bucovina, and Basarabia had been unified with the pre-war Romanian kingdom, fulfilling the dream of nineteenth-century nationalists.
12) "His Holiness Daniel, Metropolitan of Moldavia and Bucovina, Father Staniloae--Theologian of Ecumenical Orthodoxy", in the YearBook of the Faculty of Orthodox Theology, Bucharest University Publishing House, 2004, p.
Mas tarde se integro en esta Comunidad el Circulo Rumano para la Union Latina, presidido por Aron Cotrus, y existia tambien la Asociacion Rumana Pro-Besarabia y Bucovina.
Romania is priding itself to hold an important part of the worldwide cultural heritage, exemplified by the painted monasteries in Bucovina, the Dacian fortresses in the Orastie Mountains, the fortified churches in Transylvania, the fortified town of Sighisoara, etc.
Cercetari privind influenta factorilor din sol si a altor factori stationali asupra rupturilor si doboraturilor produse de zapada in padurile din Bucovina (Research on the influence of soil factors and other site factors on snowbreaks and snowfalls produced in the forests of Bukowina).