In all cases, Giles's bucrania comprises curling ribbons descending from and surrounding the horns of the skull, intersecting garlands and large wheel-like paterae (Fig.
Several lots catalogued in the 1774 sale featured the bucrania, including three porcelain services, five glass vases and a pair of opaque-white decanters, now the rarest colour bearing Giles's decoration, apart from amethyst.
Giles also applied the bucrania in gold to colourless (5) and blue glass and it was engraved onto a wide range of colourless pieces (Fig.
The subjects may be human, as in plastered human skulls and articulated bones at Kortik (Kortik Tepe Kazisi 2009), or animal as in the plastered bucrania
of Catalhoyuk and perhaps the clay torsos of Sabi Abyad.
Cattle horns have symbolic significance in many contemporary and past cultures from prehistoric times onwards and in many parts of the world: for example, cattle bucrania
were placed around tumuli in prehistoric Sudan (Grant 2001) and aurochs horns and bucrania
in temple contexts in Bronze Age Syria (Vila 1993).
It was marked by the appearance of female figurines and by the placement in houses of aurochs bucrania
, both themes that recur in later contexts such as Catalhoyuk.
Internally, the buildings possess a variety of features that range from hearths and ovens, storage bins, plastered floors and benches, painted plaster walls, as well as evidence for moulded bucrania and anthropomorphic figures.
It is well known that Mellaart identified what he referred to as `shrines' at Catalhoyuk, defined primarily on the basis of their particularly elaborate contents, including wall paintings, bucrania and moulded sculptures.
The Cerny emphasis on cattle is reinforced by the deposition of cattle quarters, of two bucrania
, and of cattle mandibles carefully arranged, in the Balloy enclosure.