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(High Endeavor), the first national Indonesian organization, formed in Java on May 20, 1908. It was created chiefly by students and had branches in many cities of Java.
In 1909, Budi Utomo had about 10,000 members. Its first congress (the “Young Java” Congress) took place in Jogjakarta in October 1908. The activity of the organization was most noticeably developed in the field of Indonesian culture.
In 1917, Budi Utomo became a political organization, and a demand for the creation of a national democratic government was included in its program. During the reactionary period that followed the insurrection of 1926-27, the activity of Budi Utomo almost ceased. In 1935 it merged with a number of other parties and organizations to form the Party of Great Indonesia. The day that Budi Utomo was first organized is celebrated in the Republic of Indonesia as the Day of National Awakening.
REFERENCESGnevusheva, E. I. “Budi Utomo.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 5.
Belen’kii, A. B. Natsional’noe probuzhdenie Indonezii. Moscow, 1965.
Ki Hadjar Dewantara. Dari kebangunan nasional … Jakarta, 1952.