buffer

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buffer,

solution that can keep its relative acidity or alkalinity constant, i.e., keep its pH constant, despite the addition of strong acids or strong bases. Buffer solutions are frequently solutions that contain either a weak acid and one of its salts or a weak base and one of its salts. Many acid-base reactions take place in living organisms. However, for organisms to perform certain vital functions, the body fluids associated with these functions must maintain a constant pH. For example, blood must maintain a pH of close to 7.4 in order to carry oxygen from the lungs to cells; blood is therefore a powerful buffer.

buffer

[′bəf·ər]
(chemistry)
A solution selected or prepared to minimize changes in hydrogen ion concentration which would otherwise occur as a result of a chemical reaction. Also known as buffer solution.
(computer science)
(ecology)
An animal that is introduced to serve as food for other animals to reduce the losses of more desirable animals.
(electricity)
An electric circuit or component that prevents undesirable electrical interaction between two circuits or components.
(electronics)
An isolating circuit in an electronic computer used to prevent the action of a driven circuit from affecting the corresponding driving circuit.
(engineering)
A device, apparatus, or piece of material designed to reduce mechanical shock due to impact.
(mining engineering)
Blasted material piled against or near a rock face to improve fragmentation and reduce scattering of rock from the next blast.
A movable metal plate set in place in a tunnel excavation to limit the amount of rock scattered during blasting.

buffer

1. A device, apparatus, or material which reduces mechanical shock due to impact.
2. A device located at the bottom of an elevator hoistway, designed to stop a car or counter-weight from descending beyond its normal limit of travel; motion beyond this limit is taken up by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight. Also see oil buffer, spring buffer.
3. Any type of barrier that limits the scattering of rock as a result

buffer

1
1. one of a pair of spring-loaded steel pads attached at both ends of railway vehicles and at the end of a railway track to reduce shock due to contact
2. Chem
a. an ionic compound, usually a salt of a weak acid or base, added to a solution to resist changes in its acidity or alkalinity and thus stabilize its pH
b. a solution containing such a compound
3. Computing a memory device for temporarily storing data
4. Electronics an isolating circuit used to minimize the reaction between a driving and a driven circuit

buffer

2
1. any device used to shine, polish, etc.; buff
2. a person who uses such a device

buffer

(1)
An area of memory used for storing messages. Typically, a buffer will have other attributes such as an input pointer (where new data will be written into the buffer), and output pointer (where the next item will be read from) and/or a count of the space used or free. Buffers are used to decouple processes so that the reader and writer may operate at different speeds or on different sized blocks of data.

There are many different algorithms for using buffers, e.g. first-in first-out (FIFO or shelf), last-in first-out (LIFO or stack), double buffering (allowing one buffer to be read while the other is being written), cyclic buffer (reading or writing past the end wraps around to the beginning).

buffer

(2)
An electronic device to provide compatibility between two signals, e.g. changing voltage levels or current capability.

buffer

A reserved segment of memory within a program that is used to hold the data being processed. Buffers are set up to hold data coming in from and going out to the network or a local file. In a streaming media application, the program uses buffers to store an advance supply of audio or video data to compensate for momentary delays.

With computers, each application can allocate and deallocate its buffers from the general memory pool. For printers and other peripherals, the buffers provide temporary storage for data in the memory of the device. See buffering, double buffering, buffer overflow, buffer flush and bucket.
References in periodicals archive ?
3 kDa), Rhodamine 123, aluminium hydroxide gel, acetic acid (purity 99%), formaldehyde, sodium borohydride, sodium hydroxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, sodium iodide, methyl iodide (Sigma, USA), Sodium carbonate Sigma ultra and phosphate buffer solution (sodium phosphate dibasic Sigma ultra, 99%) were used as procured without further purification.
The assays were then carried out with the reaction medium containing the buffer solution that promoted the biggest enzymatic activity at pH 6.
phenyl phosphate, and pNPP as substrates of AP and its products in different buffer solutions with pH 9.
The buffer solutions were prepared from Britton-Robinson (Britton, 1955) modified universal buffer solutions.
Loosely defined, AR is a specimen pretreatment procedure that modifies the molecular conformation of target proteins by exposing slide-mounted material, (sectioned tissue and other cellular preparations), to a heated buffer solution.
This means carrying National Institute of Technology (NIST)--traceable buffer solutions or pH buffer pouches, distilled water, and sometimes an inert container to the job site.
For buffer solutions having temperature-dependent ionic strength, the applied temperature gradient results in a corresponding gradient in the electrophoretic velocity of a charged analyte in the channel.
Lightnin also offers an expanded line of SR Sanitary Right Angle Drive mixers featuring an array of mixing solutions for applications in the pharmaceutical, biological, cosmetic and food processing industries, using tank sizes between 100-30,000 liters for media suspension, storage, buffer solutions and fermentation.
Double distilled water was chosen over buffer solutions as the standard for our seed germination bioassay.
Tsang and his coworkers exposed three commonly used methacrylate polymers to buffer solutions both with and without cholesterol esterase for periods of 2 to 8 days.
The company, with approximately 60 employees and sales of approximately [euro] 13 million in 2011, specializes in the production and marketing of cell-culture media and buffer solutions.