Bund

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bund

[bənd]
(civil engineering)
An embankment or embanked thoroughfare along a body of water; the term is used particularly for such structures in the Far East.

Bund

 

(Yiddish, “union”), a petit-bourgeois nationalist organization composed mainly of Jewish artisans from the western oblasts of Russia. It was called the General Union of Jewish Workers in Lithuania, Poland, and Russia. It was formed in September 1897 at the founding congress of the Jewish social democratic groups in Vil’na. In the beginning it conducted socialist propaganda but, in the course of the struggle for the abolition of the discriminatory laws against Jews, it slipped to positions of nationalism. In 1898, at the First Congress of the RSDLP, the Bund joined the party as an autonomous organization, which was independent only in matters relating specifically to the Jewish proletariat. From 1901 on, it was the advocate of nationalism and separatism in the Russian labor movement, adopted opportunistic positions, supported the Economists and Mensheviks, and fought against Bolshevism. In 1901 the Bund began publishing an information leaflet abroad, Poslednie izvestiia (The Latest News, 256 issues were published before January 1906). The central printed organs were Arberter Shtimme (The Worker’s Voice, published clandestinely in Russia) and Yiddisher Arberter (The Jewish Worker, published in Geneva by the Bund’s foreign committee). From December 1905 the Bund had legal publications in Russia. The Fourth Congress of the Bund (April 1901) demanded a reorganization of the RSDLP on federal principles. The opportunistic position and the nationalist tendencies of the Bund were sharply criticized by V. I. Lenin and the editors of Iskra (nos. 7 and 8). At the Second Congress of the RSDLP (1903), the Bundists fought for the federal principle in party organization, that is, the division of the party according to nationality. The Bund demanded to be recognized as the sole representative of the Jewish workers in the RSDLP. When the Bund’s claims were rejected, it left the RSDLP and allied itself with the Zionist movement of Poale Zion. V. I. Lenin, in the article “Does the Jewish Proletariat Need an ’Independent Political Party’ ” (1903), resolutely unmasked the harm of the nationalism preached by the Bund (see Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 7, pp. 117-22).

Under the impact of the general revolutionary upheaval, the Bund rejoined the RSDLP at the Fourth Congress of the RSDLP (the Unity Congress, 1906), but it adopted Men-shevik positions on all questions and did not fulfill the decision of the congress to unite social democrats in the provinces into single organizations. To the demand of the Bolshevik program on the right of nations to self-determination, the Bund opposed the demand (at the Sixth Congress of the Bund in 1905) of national cultural autonomy, which contributed to disunity among the forces of the proletariat. In the years of the Stolypin reaction, the Bund supported the liquidators and L. D. Trotsky. The Sixth (Prague) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (1912) expelled the Bundists from the party, along with other opportunists. During World War I (1914-18), the Bund adopted social chauvinistic positions. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Bundists joined the Mensheviks, supported the counterrevolutionary Provisional Government, and fought against the Bolshevik policy of transition to the socialist revolution. During the October Revolution the Bundists demanded the formation of a coalition government and, in December 1917, at their eighth congress, drew up tactics for fighting against the Soviet republic. While the leaders of the Bund (R. A. Abramovich, I. L. Eisenstadt) emigrated abroad and conducted anti-Soviet activity, a change of attitude toward a collaboration with the Soviet regime took place among the rank and file Bund members. In 1920, at their 12th conference in Moscow, the Bundists recognized the need for giving up the opposition tactics toward the Soviet regime. In March 1921, at their 13th conference in Minsk, the Bundists, despite the position of the right wing, adopted the decision of joining the RCP (Bolshevik) on the conditions proposed to them, that is, on general principles, which led to the self-liquidation of the Bund.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed. (See reference volume, part 1, pp. 52-53.)
KPSS v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh s” ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, 7th ed., part 1. Moscow, 1954. Pages 47, 58, 113, 119, 132, 134, 270.

S. V. SHEPROV

bund

A continuous, low wall or embankment along a body of water.
References in periodicals archive ?
Iban, Land Dayak, Malay) shares basically the same features as Kayanic rawa cultivation, for example, non-tillage, sowing and transplanting with a dibbling stick, bunding with dykes, and dependence on rainfall or stream or spring irrigation, and frequent use of fallowing (Fukui 1980: 712-4, 738-40).
Leasing: Although it is not unusual that the leasing agent and the managing agent be different, a bunding clearly benefits by having a good managing company which also has a strong leasing agent.
It added that bunding the payments would produce administrative savings by eliminating more than 25% of the line items currently processed by carriers.
The New Polar Research Vessel (NPRV) Associated Works may comprise some or all of the following: New 2 storey building, circa 1 000 m2 GFA, at Rothera; Demolition of existing buildings and disposal of waste outside Antarctica; Aircraft hangar recladding and extension at Rothera; Alterations or extension to the existing wharf and slipway at Rothera; Civil engineering remedial works to the crushed rock runway at Rothera; Additional bulk fuel storage tanks circa 230 m3 each including bunding at Rothera; New facilities resulting from changes in science requirements; Warehousing UK, South Atlantic, Antarctic; New facilities to island stations; Alteration to Science and Comms towers and other infrastructure; Bulk fuel facilities tanks at all other stations tank size circa 20-25 m3.
Improvements to storage facilities and bunding - spillage containment areas - were ongoing.
Manufactured in the UK, approved by The Oil Firing Technical Association (OFTEC), and exceeding the bunding capacity requirements of British Standard BS5410, all models benefit from a 10-year manufacturer's warranty against material, manufacturing and design defect.
The work includes gaining individual households grants to assist in flood protection, and installing bunding to prevent the beck breaking its banks.
Watershed works (especially pebble bunding, construction of check dams, and horticulture-related activities) had thus been a major source of employment for many of the labourers, especially when no agricultural work was available.
These include: better timing of irrigation to suit the infiltration rate of the soil type, bunding to prevent irrigation water leaving bays, and the recycling of irrigation outwash water.
On new installations apparently we can store up to 1,500 litres of fuel without bunding or catchment facilities.
The birds captured were carefully removed and taken into central bunding table where they were identified, measured, aged and sexed.
Retenkit can be installed around and under machinery, and is flexible enough to be used for stand-alone small scale bunding or spill control requirements.