Bunker Hill, battle of


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Bunker Hill, battle of,

in the American Revolution, June 17, 1775. Detachments of colonial militia under Artemas WardWard, Artemas
, 1727–1800, American general in the American Revolution, b. Shrewsbury, Mass. He was active in colonial politics and served in the French and Indian War.
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, Nathanael Greene, John StarkStark, John,
1728–1822, American Revolutionary soldier, b. Londonderry, N.H. He fought in the French and Indian Wars. At the start of the Revolution he distinguished himself at Bunker Hill, and he served in the Quebec campaign and with George Washington at Princeton and
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, and Israel PutnamPutnam, Israel,
1718–90, American Revolutionary general, b. Salem (now Danvers), Mass. A farmer at Pomfret, Conn., he fought in the French and Indian Wars, seeing action at Montreal (1760) and at Havana (1762).
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 laid siege to Boston shortly after the battles of Lexington and Concord. However, Thomas GageGage, Thomas,
1721–87, English general in North America. He came to America (1754) with Gen. Edward Braddock and took part in the ill-fated expedition against Fort Duquesne (1755).
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, British commander in the city, made no attempt to break the siege until he was reinforced (in May) by troops led by William HoweHowe, William Howe, 5th Viscount,
1729–1814, English general in the American Revolution; younger brother of Admiral Richard Howe.
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, Sir Henry ClintonClinton, Sir Henry,
1738?–1795, British general in the American Revolution, b. Newfoundland; son of George Clinton (1686?–1761). He was an officer in the New York militia and then in the Coldstream Guards.
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, and John BurgoyneBurgoyne, John
, 1722–92, British general and playwright. In the Seven Years War, his victory over the Spanish in storming (1762) Valencia de Alcántara in Portugal made him the toast of London. He was elected to Parliament in 1761 and took his seat in 1763.
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. The Continental forces learned of the British plan to take the heights of Dorchester and Charlestown, and William PrescottPrescott, William,
1726–95, American Revolutionary officer, b. Groton, Mass. He saw service in the French and Indian Wars. In the American Revolution, he fortified (1775) Breed's Hill for the colonists and was prominent in the subsequent battle that was erroneously called
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 was sent to occupy Bunker Hill outside Charlestown. Prescott instead chose the neighboring Breed's Hill to the southeast, but the engagement that ensued has become known as the battle of Bunker Hill. Howe was ordered to attack the American position, and after two slaughterous failures a third charge dislodged the Americans, who had run out of powder. The British victory failed to break the siege, and the gallant American defense heightened colonial morale and resistance.

Bibliography

See T. J. Fleming, Now We Are Enemies (1960); R. M. Ketchum, The Battle for Bunker Hill (1962); N. Philbrick, Bunker Hill (2013).

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