John Bunyan

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Bunyan, John

(bŭn`yən), 1628–88, English author, b. Elstow, Bedfordshire. After a brief period at the village free school, Bunyan learned the tinker's trade, which he followed intermittently throughout his life. Joining the parliamentary army in 1644, he served until 1647. The reading of several pious books and a constant study of the Bible intensified Bunyan's religious beliefs, and in 1653 he began acting as lay preacher for a congregation of Baptists in Bedford. In this capacity he came into conflict with the Quakers led by George FoxFox, George,
1624–91, English religious leader, founder of the Society of Friends, b. Fenny Drayton in Leicestershire. As a boy he was apprenticed to a shoemaker and wool dealer.
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 and turned to writing in defense of his beliefs. In 1660 agents of the restored monarchy arrested him for unlicensed preaching, and he remained in prison for the next 12 years. During this period Bunyan wrote nine books, the most famous of which is Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666), a fervent spiritual autobiography. Soon after his release in 1672 he was reimprisoned briefly and wrote the first part of his masterpiece The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come, published in 1678. A second part appeared in 1684. By the time Bunyan was released from his second imprisonment, he had become a hero to the members of his sect, and he continued preaching and writing until his death. The principal works of these later years are The Life and Death of Mr. Badman (1680) and The Holy War (1682). Pilgrim's Progress is an allegory recounting Christian's journey from the City of Destruction to the Celestial City; the second part describes the manner in which Christian's wife, Christiana, makes the same pilgrimage. Remarkable for its simple, biblical style and its vivid presentation of character and incident, Pilgrim's Progress is considered one of the world's great works of literature. Bunyan's continued popularity rests on the spiritual fervor that permeates his works and on the compelling style in which they are written. His prose unites the eloquence of the Bible with the vigorous realism of common speech.

Bibliography

See biography by O. E. Winslow (1961); studies by H. A. Talon (1951), W. Y. Tindall (1934, repr. 1964), D. E. Smith (1966), R. Sharrock (rev. ed. 1968), V. Newey, ed. (1980), and E. B. Batson (1984); A. Duncan-Page, ed, The Cambridge Companion to Bunyan (2010).

Bunyan, John

 

Born November 1628 in Elstow; died Aug. 31, 1688, in London. English writer. Son of a village tinsmith, and a coppersmith himself.

At the time of the English Revolution of the 17th century Bunyan became a Puritan preacher. During the Restoration he spent 12 years in prison and there wrote the allegorical novel The Pilgrim’s Progress (parts 1–2, 1678–84; Russian translation, 1878). In Bunyan’s novel religious moralizing is combined with attacks on the aristocracy and bourgeoisie. In The Life and Death of Mr. Badman (1680), Bunyan for the first time in English literature satirically portrayed a bourgeois moneygrubber. The allegorical image of “vanity fair” which one finds in Bunyan’s works was used by W. Thackeray in a novel of the same name.

WORKS

The Entire Works, vols. 1–4. [London, 1859–60.]
In Russian translation:
Bun’ian, loan. Sochineniia, 3rd ed., parts 1–4. Moscow, 1819.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 1, 2nd issue. Moscow-Leningrad, 1945.
Lindsay, J. J. Bunyan, Maker of Myths. London, 1937.
Talon, H. A. John Bunyan. London [and elsewhere], 1956.