a moth of the family Geometridae, a dangerous pest of pines. The wingspread reaches 40 mm. Males have dark-brown, spotted wings, and females have red wings with two transverse stripes. Bupalus piniarius occurs wherever pines are found. There is one generation per year. Young caterpillars chew out grooves in the needles; adult caterpillars eat the needles entirely. The trees weaken, and their growth rate declines. Secondary pests, such as bark beetles, attack the trees, leading to their complete destruction. Periods of intensive reproduction, which are fostered by summer droughts followed by warm autumns, are common in the Central Chernozem Zone, the Ukraine, the Volga Region, and Western Siberia. The caterpillars are often affected by various diseases. The insects are also attacked by parasitic and predatory insects and birds.
Control measures include the cultivation of resistant plantings (oak, birch, and other species) and treatment with insecticides.