Anglo-Burmese Wars

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Anglo-Burmese Wars

 

1824–26, 1852, and 1885, predatory wars instigated by England and aimed at the colonial enslavement of Burma.

The British East India Company started the first Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) on Mar. 5, 1824. English forces met stubborn resistance. The Burmese army, led by Maha Bandula, inflicted serious damage to the English forces. After Maha Bandula’s death in April 1825 the English army was able, at the expense of huge losses, to advance almost to the Burmese capital of Ava. England bound Burma to a treaty, signed in Yandabo on Feb. 24, 1826. Burma lost Arakan, Tenasserim, and the Indian principalities of Assam and Manipur, which it had conquered at the beginning of the 19th century. Burma was obligated to pay an indemnity of <£ 1 million, to accept an English resident, and to conclude a trade agreement with England. The resistance of the Burmese people forced the East India Company to end military actions without completing the conquest of all of Burma.

The East India Company initiated the second Anglo-Burmese War (1852) on Apr. 5, 1852, with the occupation of the area of Pegu. Burma suffered defeat in this war owing in part to the uprisings, provoked by England, of the Mons, Shans, and Karens. On Dec. 20, 1852, the East India Company proclaimed the annexation of Pegu.

The third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) completed the subjugation of Burma. Exploiting an incident between an English trading company and the Burmese government, England presented an ultimatum to the Burmese king Thibau in October 1885 demanding control over Burma’s foreign relations. At the same time, English troops were sent to Burma. Military actions began on Nov. 14, 1885. The regular Burmese army was unable to resist the English army, which had numerical superiority, and it capitulated. On Jan. 1, 1886, a manifesto announcing the annexation of Burma to the possessions of the English throne was published. Burma became a separate province of India. The partisan movement which unfolded in Burma was not broken by the English colonialists until 1890.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Voina v Birme.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 9.
Marx, K. “Polozhenie del na kontinente i v Anglii.” Ibid.
Banerjee, A. C. Annexation of Burma. Calcutta, 1944.

A. P. MURANOVA

References in classic literature ?
They have been absent from England fourteen years, having been embarked the year after Waterloo, in which glorious conflict they took an active part, and having subsequently distinguished themselves in the Burmese war.
Granville Gower Loch captained HMS Winchester and fell in action during the Second Burmese War in 1835.
Pertinently, it was only in 1826 that Assam ceded to the British Dominion under the aegis of the Treaty of Yandabu which was a logical corollary of the Anglo Burmese War.
Dennis, himself a veteran of the Burmese War, tracked Henry down to a small flat on the south coast but had the door slammed in his face many times as Henry wanted nothing to do with the war.
BURMESE war veteran Alf Murch will be given a guard of honour by Coventry standard bearers at his funeral on Friday.
Nor do we hear him mentioning the Burmese war against the Karen people nor many other examples of the use of terror for political purposes by powerful military cliques or colonizing governments.
A plaque in a Burmese war cemetery marks the short life of Bill Timms, who was only 21 when killed fighting the Japanese.
During his visit Mr Farley also laid a wreath at the Burmese war cemetery where the bodies of 200 soldiers from the Durham Light Infantry are buried.