Burushaski


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Burushaski

 

the language of the Burishki; an unwritten, genetically isolated language, spoken in the high-mountain regions of Hunza and Nagar in extreme northwestern Pakistan. Burushaski is spoken by approximately 40, 000 people (1963 estimate). Two dialects are distinguished—Burushaski and Vershikvar.

The phonetic system of Burushaski includes ten vowels (opposed in quality and length) and 36 consonants (including retroflexes and voiceless aspirates). It has phonological tones. The simple noun morphology is in contrast to the complex verb morphology. Nominal parts of speech are not clearly delimited. Declension is represented by two cases, nominative and ergative-oblique, which are concretized by postpositions. A number of nouns occur only with possessive prefixes indicating person, number, and class of the possessor (a-rin, “my hand”; mu-rin, “her hand”) according to four classes: males, females, animals and some objects, and other objects and concepts. The verb has two temporal stems to which are added prefixal, suffixal, and infixal markers of person, number, and class (of the subject and of the direct and indirect objects): gu-yec-am, “I saw you”; mu-yec-uman, “they saw her.” Both nominative and ergative sentence constructions are used. The vocabulary contains many loanwords from the Dardic languages and Urdu, which contributed quite a number of Persianisms and Arabisms.

REFERENCES

Zarubin, I. I. Vershikskoe narechie kandzhutskogo iazyka. Leningrad, 1927.
Klimov, G. A., and D. I. Edel’man. lazyk burushaski. Moscow, 1970.
Lorimer, D. L. R. The Burushaski Language, vols. 1-3. Oslo, 1935-38.

D. I. EDEL’MAN

References in periodicals archive ?
s-), Burushaski (*-s-, *sen-), and Basque (*zise-n).
Shina, Balti, Burushaski, Khuwar, Wakhi and Domaki are the major languages spoken in the region while the instruments commonly used in Gilgit Baltistan are Dadang (drum), damal (percussion), Duff (a circular frame drum), surnai or nay (a kind of flute), Ghijak (a spiked fiddle), Sitar, Rubab and Gagbi (flute) are popular and important instruments.
There is, however, not one single mother tongue spoken by Gilgit inhabitants, but many: apart from Shina, there are Burushaski, Pashto and others, as well as Urdu as a lingua franca for educational, professional and administrational purposes.
28) dem num A N Alamblak, Dutch, Georgian, Hungarian, Kayardild, Ket, Nama Hottentot, Imbabura Quechua, Pipil, Tamil, Turkish dem A N num -- num A N dem Berbice Dutch Creole A N num dem -- dem num N A Burushaski, Guarani dem N A num Bambara (12) num N A dem Basque, Hmong Njua N A num dem Oromo
of the Pamir languages Burushaski, many of the Australian (Papuan) languages, of Amerindian the Algonqian languages (among others Mohican, Delaware, Cree, Illinois [now extinct]), some of the Paleo-Siberian languages like Chukchi.
This dictionary includes about 8,000 lemmata with the pitch-accents and their behavior noted, along with cross-references such as parallels from Nuristani, Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Dravidian and Munda languages and from Burushaski.
A parallel to the affricatized Romani word is found in Kalasha and Burushaski cila 'cold, cold season'.
In Burushaski, both role types can be expressed, but the mechanisms used for their expression vary.
Berger (1974) and Tiffou and Pesot (1989) have published much rich material on the variety of Burushaski spoken in Yasin.
325-330 the numerals of Papuan (Telefol, Kombai, Aghu), Eskimo, Burushaski, Sumerian, Yukaghir, Chukchi, Khoisan (San, Nama) and some Amerindian (Haida, Yuma, Chumash) languages are given with some short comments.
These words look like loan formations after a Dardic model, compare Indus Kohistani sis-lut and Phalura sisa-luto both 'bare-headed' (second element < OIA *lutta/luttha 'defective' [11076]; also in Shina luto, Burushaski loto 'barhauptig, entblosst, schamlos').
In contrast to the languages in (10)-(14), in Turkish and Burushaski the Recipient invariably bears non-core marking.