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saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C4H10; colorless and odorless gases. Two isomeric butanes are known: normal, CH3CH2CH2CH3; and isobutane, Butaneswith boiling points of -0.5° C and -11° C

respectively. Mixtures of these compounds with air that contain 1.5-8.5 percent normal butane or 1.8-8.4 percent isobutane are explosive.

Sources of butanes include petroleum gases, the butane-butylene fraction of refinery gases, and natural gas. Considerable quantities of isobutane are obtained by isomerization of normal butane (in the presence of AICI3 and HCl at 90-105° C and a pressure of 1-2 meganewtons per sq m, or 10-20 kilograms-force per sq cm). Under industrial conditions, butadiene and isobutylene are obtained by dehydrogenation from normal butane and isobutane respectively. Neohexane and isooctane, valuable motor fuel additives, are synthesized from isobutane by alkylation with olefins. Butanes are also used as gas fuel when mixed with propane and other hydrocarbons.

References in periodicals archive ?
The LPG hydrocarbons - particularly the butanes and a related chemical called butene - create problems because they are reactive molecules that help form ozone, the principal component of smog.
The estimate and forecast analysis was further validated with C-level executives of major companies operating in the global butanes market through means of primary research.
It will also serve wholesale customers in Arizona as well as offering butane blending.