Buyid(bo͞o`yĭd), Shiite Islamic dynasty of N Persian descent that controlled Iraq and Persia from c.945 to 1060; founded by the sons of Buyeh. In the 930s, Buyeh's sons (Ali, Hasan, and Ahmad) seized such cities as Isfahan, Kerman, Rayy, and Baghdad. With the capture of the AbbasidAbbasid
, Arab family descended from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad. The Abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized neither in Spain nor (after 787) W of Egypt.
..... Click the link for more information. capital, BaghdadBaghdad
, city (1987 pop. 3,841,268), capital of Iraq, central Iraq, on both banks of the Tigris River. The city's principal economic activity is oil refining.
..... Click the link for more information. , in 945, the Buyids assumed control of the Abassid Empire. Under their dynasty the Sunni caliphs were reduced to administrative figureheads, while Ahmed ruled under the title of amir al-umara, or chief commander. Buyid control peaked during the reign (949–83) of Adud ad-Dawlah, who increased the dynasty's territorial domain, adding OmanOman
, officially Sultanate of Oman, independent sultanate (2005 est. pop. 3,002,000), c.82,000 sq mi (212,380 sq km), SE Arabian peninsula, on the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea.
..... Click the link for more information. , Tabaristan, and Jorjan. He also made himself sole ruler, eliminating the temporal functions of the caliph. Public buildings, hospitals, and Amir's Dam across the Kur River were built during his rule. Discord among later Buyid leaders led to the eventual decline of their power by 1060; they were replaced by other dynasties, who divided Buyid territory. The Seljuks (see TurksTurks,
term applied in its wider meaning to the Turkic-speaking peoples of Turkey, Russia, Central Asia, Xinjiang in China (Chinese Turkistan), Azerbaijan and the Caucasus, Iran, and Afghanistan.
..... Click the link for more information. ), first under Tughril BegTughril Beg
, 990–1063, founder of the Seljuk Turk dynasty ruling (11th–14th cent.) parts of Anatolia, Iraq, Persia, and Syria. He was early successful in conquests with his brother, who eventually governed Khorasan.
..... Click the link for more information. , ruled most of their territory.