a series of Sunni warrior states, including most prominently the Seljuks, the Zangids, and the Ayyubids, reconquered most of the Islamic world under the control of Shiite dynasties between the mid-tenth and mid-eleventh centuries: The Seljuks ousted the Buyids
, who had ruled over most of Iran and Iraq, capturing Baghdad in 447 A.
The practice of hiring mercenaries and armies from peripheral regions, mainly of Turkic origin, eventually proved fatal to the 'Abbasids, as in the case of the Aghalibs, Buyids
, and Tulunids.
This eventually led to creation of multiple Persian power centers within the Caliphate: In Baghdad, the Buyids
, claiming decent from the Sassanids and having a Shiite sympathy, rose to power, while in the northeast the Samanids ruled through the tenth century claiming decent from Bahram Chubineh, a famous Sassanid general.
Going the other direction, however, armies from Iran conquered lower Iraq on at least seven occasions: the Abbasid Revolution of 750, the civil war between Harun al-Rashid's sons al-Amin and al-Ma'mun following his death in 809, the takeover of the Abbasid capital of Baghdad by the Buyids
in 945, the eviction of the Buyids
from Baghdad by the Seljuq sultan Tughril Beg in 1055, the Mongol invasion commanded by Genghiz IChan's grandson Hulagu in 1258, the invasion of Timur (Tamerlane) in 1401 and the annexation to the newly rising Safavid Empire in 1508.
, who were Shiite, had the greatest influence not only in the provinces of Persia but also in the capital of the caliphate in Baghdad, and even upon the caliph himself.
As a result of numerous military successes, Rayy replaced Isfahan Isfahan as the central court of the Buyids in the year 335/946, and the city soon became a chief Buyid stronghold in western Iran as well as an important capital of the Islamic world.
Ibn 'Abbad subsequently played a prominent role in the negotiations between the Buyids and their main rivals in the east, the Samanids.
Part two covers the early caliphal band under the Umayyads (661-750) and 'Abbasids until 847, and the Diwan al-Barid in the middle 'Abbasid period, including the postal systems of the Buyids, Saljuqs, Fatimids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, international merchants, and Muslim philosophers.
Second, although these systems were basically simple relays, they sometimes reflected the nature of particular dynasties and states, such as the Buyid use of runners or the Mamluk preference for horsemen.
His descendants, however, had to submit, often precariously, to the mightier dynasties of the Samanids, Buyids
, Ghaz-navids, and ultimately the Saljuqs.
Certainly in Khurasan and Transoxania, Ism ili sympathies were linked in some instances to the aspirations of Samanid amirs for autonomous rule in the east, especially after the takeover of the caliphate by the Buyids
It was nevertheless under the Buyids
, "equally Shi i but not so doctrinaire," that such towers spread, evidence, he believes, that they were no longer viewed as confessional signs; in fact, the ruler's name was sometimes proclaimed from them, and Bloom suggests that they may have become structures commemorating the patrons' political power.