Papers: Proceedings of the First Australian Byzantine
The Orthodox Byzantines
refused to recognize the supremacy of the Pope of Rome over all things sacred and secular, and they allowed their emperor far more authority over the Church than papal partisans could countenance.
For the first time, grape seeds from the Byzantine
era have been found.
This summary of Leslie Brubaker and John Haldon's Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era has the same primary purpose as that longer book: to show that what Byzantine
sources and most modern scholars have said about iconoclasm is false.
He nevertheless correctly makes some room for the post-1204 period, where the provincial Byzantines
sought to promote their own capitals and a more detached sense of 'national' identity appeared.
Natasha Hodgson's article explores an area neglected by both Crusade and Byzantine
scholars: how native Christian peoples reacted to the crusaders.
era began with the transfer of the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to the site of ancient Byzantium on the Bosphorus in the year A.
To the Byzantines
, however, the Temple was a symbol to be represented metaphorically rather than an icon to be reified.
The Turks scarcely had to strike a blow as the Byzantines
seemed intent on destroying themselves.
He says, "Ottoman artists had very different perspectives from those of the Byzantines
Luttwak analyzes a variety of strategic methods and instruments the Byzantines
used to pursue grand strategy and how they were refined over the centuries.
Luttwak recognizes that the Byzantines
did not understand or practice strategy as we do today, but he contends they consistently behaved in line with a recognizable strategy that developed over time.