Córdoba

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Córdoba

(kôr`dōvä), city (1991 pop. 1,197,926), capital of Córdoba prov., central Argentina, on the Río Primero. It is the second largest city in Argentina, a cultural and commercial center, and a transportation hub. Near the city on the Primero is one of the first dams in South America; it provides hydroelectric power to Córdoba. Irrigation has transformed the surrounding countryside, formerly devoted to cattle ranches, into orchards, grain fields, and vineyards. Córdoba exports wheat, cattle, lumber, and minerals. An automobile assembly plant is there, as are a number of small industries. The city is also a popular tourist and health resort.

Córdoba was founded in 1573 and prospered during colonial times as a link on the commercial route between Buenos Aires and Chile. The advent of the railroad in the 19th cent. increased prosperity. Many buildings in the city date from colonial times. Most notable are the cathedral and the former city hall. The university (founded 1613) made Córdoba an early intellectual center of South America. The city also has an observatory and several museums.


Córdoba

(kôr`dōvä), city (1990 pop. 130,695), Veracruz state, E central Mexico. It is the commercial and processing center of a fertile coffee, sugarcane, and tropical fruit region. Sugar milling is the chief industry. The city is also a popular tourist spot. Córdoba was founded in 1617. The Spanish viceroy O'Donojú and the Mexican revolutionary Agustín de IturbideIturbide, Agustín de
, 1783–1824, Mexican revolutionist, emperor of Mexico (1822–23). An officer in the royalist army, he was sympathetic to independence but took no part in the separatist movement led by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, and in fact helped to
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 signed a treaty there in 1821 that established Mexico's independence. The city suffered extensive damage in 1973 from an earthquake.

Córdoba

or

Cordova

(both: kôr`dōvä), city (1990 pop. 307,275), capital of Córdoba prov., S Spain, in Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir River. Modern industries in the city include brewing, distilling, textile manufacturing, metallurgy, and tourism. Córdoba flourished under the Romans, then passed to the Visigoths (572) and the Moors (711). Under the UmayyadUmayyad
, the first Islamic dynasty (661–750). Their reign witnessed the return to leadership roles of the pre-Islamic Arab elite, and the rejuvenation of tribal loyalties. The Banu Ummaya constituted the higher stratum of the pre-Islamic Meccan elite.
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 dynasty it became the seat (756–1031) of an independent emirate, later called caliphate, which included most of Muslim Spain. The city was then one of the greatest and wealthiest in Europe, renowned as a center of Muslim and Jewish culture and admired for its architectural glories—notably, the great mosque, begun in the 8th cent., which is one of the finest of all Muslim monuments—and for its gold, silver, silk, and leather work. The city reached its zenith under Abd ar-Rahman IIIAbd ar-Rahman III,
891–961, Umayyad emir (912–29) and first caliph (929–61) of Córdoba. When he succeeded to the throne, the Spanish emirate was reduced to Córdoba and its environs and beset with tribal warfare.
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, who also founded the city of Medina Azahara, whose ruins E of Córdoba were discovered in 1911. Córdoba declined after the fall of the Umayyads and became subject to Seville in 1078. Ferdinand III of Castile conquered it in 1236; in 1238 the great mosque became a cathedral. Córdoba never recovered its former splendor, but remained famous for its work in gold, silver, and leather. It was sacked by the French in 1808 and sided with Franco early (1936) in the civil war. The Senecas, Lucan, Averroës, and Maimonides were born in Córdoba. There is a university in the city.

Córdoba

 

a province in Argentina. Córdoba is located mainly in the Dry Pampa, which is cut by several rivers, including the Dulce, Cuarto, and Quinto. To the west is the Sierra de Córdoba (elevations up to 2,884 m). Area, 168,900 sq km; population, 2,100,000 (1970, approximately 70 percent urban). The capital is the city of Córdoba. Beryllium and tungsten ores are mined. Córdoba is rich in hydroelectric resources and supplies a substantial amount of Argentina’s electric power. The main sectors of industry are machine-building (Córdoba), nonferrous metallurgy (Rio Tercero), food-processing, and the manufacture of leather footwear. Livestock raising is the predominant form of agriculture; cereal and oil crops (primarily peanuts) are grown. Flowers and vegetables are cultivated on irrigated lands.

Table 1. Components of some cordite powders (in percent)
PowderHigh-nitrogen nitrocelluloseLow-nitrogen nitrocelluloseNitroglycerinStabilizerResidual volatile solventPotassium nitrateMagnesium oxideWater
Mortar cordite (USSR)...............64.033.61 (centralite) 0.3 (petrolatum)0.50.20.4
Gun maxim (USA)...............78.08.09.02 (urea)1.51.5
Rifle solenite (Italy)...............35.030.033.01 (centralite)0.50.5
Sports-gun excite (Great Britain)...............63.029.05 (petrolatum)0.32.00.7

Córdoba

 

a department in northwestern Colombia, mostly in the Caribbean lowlands. Area, 25,200 sq km; population, 792,000 (1971). The administrative, cultural, and economic center is Montería. Two-thirds of the population is primarily engaged in livestock raising; there are fertile natural pastures between the Sinú and San Jorge rivers. Córdoba has a plantation economy (coffee, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, rice, and tropical fruits). The primary processing of agricultural products is conducted.


Córdoba

 

a city in central Argentina and capital of the province of Córdoba.Population, 799,000 (1970, including suburbs). Railroad junction. Córdoba, one of the country’s leading indus-trial centers, has machine-building (tractors, automobiles, air-craft), food, and leather industries. The city was founded in 1573. Its university was established in 1613.

Córdoba has many 18th- and 19th-century dwellings, mostly with one story and often with two patios. There also are modern buildings (including industrial structures). Córdoba is the site of a cathedral (foundation laid in 1574, built from 1680 to 1758, architects A. Blanqui and Friar Vicente Muñoz) with classicist facades and baroque dome and towers. The La Compañía Church (1646–90, architect Philippe Lemer), with wooden arches that resemble the hull of a ship, is also in Córdoba.

REFERENCE

Lascana González, A. Monumentos religiosos de Córdoba colonial Buenos Aires, 1941.

Córdoba

 

(also Cordova), a city in Andalusia, in southern Spain, on the Guadalquivir River; administrative center of Córdoba Province. Population, 235,600 (1971). Wine, olive oil, flour, and leather are produced in Córdoba. Branches of Spain’s copper-smelting (70 percent of Spain’s total production of electrolytic copper is concentrated in Córdoba), electrical-engineering (controlled by American capital), and agricultural machine-building industries are there.

Córdoba has been known since the time of Phoenician colonization. According to Strabo and Ptolemy, it was the center for the Turdetatian tribes. It was captured by the Romans in the Second Punic War (218–201 B.C.). Under Augustus it was the main city of the province of Baetica. Córdoba was subsequently seized by the Vandals, Byzantium, the Visigoths, and Arab forces (A.D. 711). It became the capital of the Córdoba emirate in 756 and of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 929. In the tenth century Córdoba became an educational and scientific center. With the collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031, the city retained its independence until 1070, when it was subordinated by the Emir of Sevilla. During the Reconquesta, Córdoba passed into the hands of the Castilian kings in 1236. Its fate became interwoven with those of Castile and, later, Spain.

The extremely irregular layout of Córdoba’s center has been preserved. Still standing from Moorish times are low stucco houses that have blind facades and patios with greenery. Architectural monuments include a Roman bridge; the Arab tower of La Calahorra (rebuilt in 1369); a cathedral (until 1236 a mosque; construction begun in 785); the Church of St. Nicholás de la Villa (13th-16th centuries); the church of Carmen Calzado Monastery (1580, in the Mujedar style); Roman, Gothic, baroque, and classicist churches; a synagogue (1315); the city hall (1594–1631, in the Herreresque style); Renaissance palaces; and 18th-century squares. Córdoba is the site of the Provincial Museum of Fine Arts and the Provincial Archaeological Museum.

REFERENCES

Nikitiuk, O. D. Kordova, Granada, Sevil’iadrevnie tsentry Andalusii. Moscow, 1972.
Ramirez de Arellano, R. Historia de Córdoba … , vols. 1–4, Ciudad-Real, 1915–19.

Córdoba

 

a city in the state of Veracruz, in Eastern Mexico. Population, 68,000 (1969). Cordoba is linked by railroad and highway with Mexico City and the port of Veracruz. It is the center of a region with a plantation economy (coffee and fruit). It has cotton, food-processing, and chemical industries. Córdoba is a mountain resort.