Caesar

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Caesar

(sē`zər), ancient Roman patrician family of the Julian gens. There are separate articles on its two most distinguished members, Julius CaesarCaesar, Julius
(Caius Julius Caesar), 100? B.C.–44 B.C., Roman statesman and general. Rise to Power

Although he was born into the Julian gens, one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, Caesar was always a member of the democratic or popular party.
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 and AugustusAugustus
, 63 B.C.–A.D. 14, first Roman emperor, a grandson of the sister of Julius Caesar. Named at first Caius Octavius, he became on adoption by the Julian gens (44 B.C.) Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian); Augustus was a title of honor granted (27 B.C.
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. Another distinguished member of the family was Lucius Julius Caesar, d. 87 B.C., consul (90 B.C.). He proposed a law extending Roman citizenship to Roman allies that had not joined in the Social War against Rome (90 B.C.). He was killed in the beginning of the civil war by partisans of MariusMarius, Caius
, c.157 B.C.–86 B.C., Roman general. A plebeian, he became tribune (119 B.C.) and praetor (115 B.C.) and was seven times consul. He served under Scipio Africanus Minor at Numantia and under Quintus Metellus against Jugurtha.
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. His brother Caius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus, d. 87 B.C., is mentioned as an orator in Cicero's De oratore. He was killed with his brother. His name also appears as Vopisius. The son of Lucius Julius Caesar, also named Lucius Julius Caesar, d. after 43 B.C., was one of Julius Caesar's legates in Gaul (52 B.C.). He accompanied the dictator into Italy during the civil war. After the assassination of Julius Caesar he was allied with Marc AntonyAntony
or Marc Antony,
Lat. Marcus Antonius, c.83 B.C.–30 B.C., Roman politican and soldier. He was of a distinguished family; his mother was a relative of Julius Caesar.
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, whose mother, Julia, was his sister. In 43 B.C. he and Antony fell out, and only the pleas of Julia to her son saved her brother in the proscription. When Octavius (later Augustus) was adopted (44 B.C.) into the Julian gens, he took the name Caesar. His successors as emperors took the name Caesar until HadrianHadrian
, A.D. 76–138, Roman emperor (117–138), b. Spain. His name in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. An orphan, he became the ward of Trajan. Hadrian distinguished himself as a commander (especially in Dacia) and as an administrator.
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, who kept the title Augustus for the emperor and allowed the heir apparent to be called Caesar. This became the custom afterward. The imperial use of the name Caesar was perpetuated in the German kaiser and the Russian czar.

Caesar

1
1. Gaius Julius . 100--44 bc, Roman general, statesman, and historian. He formed the first triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus (60), conquered Gaul (58--50), invaded Britain (55--54), mastered Italy (49), and defeated Pompey (46). As dictator of the Roman Empire (49--44) he destroyed the power of the corrupt Roman nobility. He also introduced the Julian calendar and planned further reforms, but fear of his sovereign power led to his assassination (44) by conspirators led by Marcus Brutus and Cassius Longinus
2. any Roman emperor
3. a title of the Roman emperors from Augustus to Hadrian
4. in the Roman Empire
a. a title borne by the imperial heir from the reign of Hadrian
b. the heir, deputy, and subordinate ruler to either of the two emperors under Diocletian's system of government

Caesar

2
1. any Roman emperor
2. a title of the Roman emperors from Augustus to Hadrian
3. in the Roman Empire
a. a title borne by the imperial heir from the reign of Hadrian
b. the heir, deputy, and subordinate ruler to either of the two emperors under Diocletian's system of government
References in classic literature ?
The governor, at my request, gave the sign for Caesar and Brutus to advance towards us.
The pope and Caesar Borgia first found the two future cardinals; they were Giovanni Rospigliosi, who held four of the highest dignities of the Holy See, and Caesar Spada, one of the noblest and richest of the Roman nobility; both felt the high honor of such a favor from the pope.
And if any one should say: Caesar obtained empire by liberality, and many others have reached the highest positions by having been liberal, and by being considered so, I answer: Either you are a prince in fact, or in a way to become one.