The addition of CCL21 in vitro increases the expression of P2X4R in cultured microglia.
It is well known that CCL2 or CCL21 is a member of CC chemokines.
In the present study, we examined whether CCL21 in HCT116 cells could facilitate chemoresistance and signatures of CSCs such as mammosphere forming ability.
Recombinant human CCL21 protein was obtained from Peprotech.
Enhancement of immunity by a DNA melanoma vaccine against TRP2 with CCL21
as an adjuvant.
2] receptor for NE, inhibited the DC release of the inflammatory chemokines CCL19 and CCL21
in vitro .
CCL21 potently activates resident microglia within the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus as well as the lumbar dorsal horn, and in turn, microglia pathologically modulate the firing properties of nociceptive neurons at these locations.
At chronic time points, pharmacological manipulations of neuron-microglia and microglia-neuron signaling either through inhibition of microglial activation, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, antagonism of PGE2 receptor binding, selective killing of microglia with Mac-1-SAP, and/or inhibition of CCL21 signaling all result in reduced pain phenotypes [10,12-13].
Moreover, the expression of CCR7 and CXCR4 on circulating T-cells, the increase of CXCL12 plasma concentration and the production of CCL19 and/or CCL21 mRNA in lymph nodes also suggest homing into secondary lymphoid organs.
Similarly, the production of CCL19 in the ileum and the rectum and that of CCL21 in the jejunum suggest that R-sIL-7gly injection also triggers T-cell migration into the lymphoid follicles of the gut, where massive T-cell proliferation subsequently occurs.
Hence, the HEV basal lamina binds locally produced lymphoid chemokines, including CCL21
, CCL19, CXCL12, and CXCL13, creating a chemokine-rich environment.
Furthermore, microglia have also been shown to be activated by CCL21
(chemokine [cc-motif] ligand 21) after SCI .