Montreal Protocol

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Montreal Protocol,

officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 168 nations are now parties to the accord. The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in
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 (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layerozone layer
or ozonosphere,
region of the stratosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone, located at altitudes of 12–30 mi (19–48 km) above the earth's surface.
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 of the atmosphere. On the basis of increasing scientific knowledge about the effects of CFCs and halons on the ozone layer, the original protocol has been amended several times. At meetings in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Montreal (1997) amendments were adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments. The production and consumption of halons was phased out by Jan. 1, 1994, and of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbons by Jan. 1, 1996, subject to an exception for agreed essential users. Methyl bromide was to be phased out by 2005 but a number of users of the chemical have won temporary exceptions from the ban, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are to be phased out by 2020. (Phaseout dates are later for developing countries.)

Under the protocol, the ozone-depleting potential, or ODP, of any substance is measured with respect to an equal mass of CCl3F, or CFC-11, which is assigned a value of 1.0. Most other CFCs have ODPs that range from about 0.5 to about 1.3. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are being used as transitional replacements (until 2020) for CFCs in refrigeration, have ODPs that are generally less than 0.5. Hydrofluorocarbons, which are also replacing CFCs as refrigerants, have ODPs of zero. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing scientific knowledge and are to be reviewed and revised periodically.


See D. E. Newton, The Ozone Dilemma (1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
Two studies, including one around the time of the CFC ban, have found that higher OOP costs for bronchodilators were associated with decreased use for adults and children (Ungar et al.
The objectives of this study were to examine if increased copayments for albuterol inhalers after the CFC ban were associated with changes in children's albuterol inhaler use and OOP costs relative to children who did not face cost-sharing changes due to the ban.
Prof Solomon, whose research spurred the CFC ban, said that as chlorine continues to dissipate there is no reason why the Antarctic hole should not close permanently by 2050.
The science underlying the CFC ban is debatable," he insists.
In February of 1992, when President Bush moved the CFC ban from 1999 to this year, there were dire predictions that some manufacturers would stop making refrigerators or produce inferior ones.
The CFC ban will cause metered dose inhaler formulations to rise in price.