congestive heart failure

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congestive heart failure,

inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time. Cardiac failure results from conditions, e.g., coronary artery diseasecoronary artery disease,
condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
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, hypertensive heart disease (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), valvular insufficiency, and rheumatic heart disease, that interfere with the nutrition and oxygenation of the heart muscle itself. Congestive heart failure develops in 50% to 60% of patients with such disorders, and it can be either acute or chronic. If the heart has time to compensate, the heart muscle may become hypertrophic (enlarged); this is caused by structural changes that impede blood flow and impair the ability of the heart to relax. Eventually the great demand for oxygen by the heart muscle cells cannot be met, and cell death results. Either the left or right ventricle alone may fail first, although combined failure is most common and almost always eventually occurs. Left ventricular failure is marked by shortness of breath (dyspnea), often accompanied by cough; pulmonary congestion and edema are evident. Failure of the right ventricle produces systemic edema, reflecting hepatic and visceral engorgement. Diagnosis is often confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment of cardiac failure usually includes dietary changes, restrictions on physical activity, rest, oxygenation, measures to improve myocardial contractility, and correction of arrhythmias. Restriction on sodium intake and the administration of diuretics (the dosages of which depend on the patient's weight) are used to remove excess sodium and water from the body. Digitalisdigitalis
, any of several chemically similar drugs used primarily to increase the force and rate of heart contractions, especially in damaged heart muscle. The effects of the drug were known as early as 1500 B.C.
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 is often prescribed to increase the speed and force of cardiac contractions, and ACE inhibitorsACE inhibitor
or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
, drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertension), to treat congestive heart failure, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarction).
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 are used to decrease peripheral vascular resistance, making heart pumping easier and more effective.

congestive heart failure

[kən′jes·tiv ′härt ‚fāl·yər]
(medicine)
A state in which circulatory congestion exists as a result of heart failure.
References in periodicals archive ?
Difficulty hearing or hearing impairment, and difficulty seeing or visual impairment are more prevalent among enrollees with IHD and CHF and report these conditions more than the overall M+C enrollee population.
Ninety-nine patients with stable CHF (88 men, 11 women) were randomized into an exercise and a nonexercise group.
While the average annual age-adjusted decline in CHF mortality during 1988-1995 was 1.
In this section, epidemiology of CHF is reviewed to understand the root of CHF and, potential significance and impact of the disease.
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The resulting large-scale inflow of CHF to the financial sector flooded the international banking system with CHF liquidity.
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van der Meer and his associates hypothesized that CHF patients may have insufficient sensitivity to erythropoietin, which is produced by the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production in response to anemia.
The new lending program was recently celebrated in Amman at a ceremony attended by CHF International President and CEO Michael Doyle, OPIC President and CEO Robert Mosbacher, Jr.
I am very pleased that Governor Celeste and Ambassador Huddleston are joining us on the CHF International Board of Trustees," says Robert A.
GlobalData predicts that the major global barriers that will play a crucial role in narrowing the global growth of the CHF market over the forecast period include the sparsely populated CHF pipeline and an increasing number of generic competitors in a market that is already heavily laden with generic drugs.